Monday, February 17, 2020
Exegesis Paper - Essay Example When it was written? The answer to this question is not quite as completely uncertain as that relating to authorship. There is also uncertainty as to the exact date of the writing of Hebrews. Numerous references to the temple of Jerusalem seem to place the date of writing prior to the fall of Jerusalem in A.D. 70, (Heb. 10:11; 13:10-11). So around A.D. 66 seems the most satisfactory date. The actual place of writing is unclear. The only clue we have for an answer to this question is found in Hebrew 13:24 Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"They of Italy salute you.Ã¢â¬ The Greek word translated Ã¢â¬Å"ofÃ¢â¬ is Ã¢â¬Å"apoÃ¢â¬ , which means Ã¢â¬Å"fromÃ¢â¬ . So the reference could mean either that the writer was in Italy or that he was sending greeting back to Italy from some Italians who were with him. Structure and parallelism The book of Hebrews occupies a very important place in the Scriptures. It is the SpiritÃ¢â¬â¢s commentary on the Pentateuch, especially the book of Leviticus. The wri ter uses the Old Testament Scriptures throughout, making at least eighty-six direct references, traceable to at least one hundred Old Testament passages. Hebrews explains the meaning and significance of the whole Jewish ritual. It makes clear that all the ceremonial laws given in the Old Testament, such as the offerings of sacrifices and the ministrations of the priests were but types pointing forward to Christ, the great sacrifice for sin, the true Priest the one Mediator between God and man. Ã Literary Criticism Form Criticism and Redaction Criticism The topic which is discussed at the greatest length in the Epistle to the Hebrews is that of Christ as High Priest. The next six chapters (5 Ã¢â¬â 10) are saturated with the idea. The passage before leads up to chapter four and coincides with for it does not affect the passage. The literary form of Hebrews is Hebrews has traditionally been described as an epistle or letter. It appears in the New Testament in the middle of the col lection of letters. It functions as a hinge connecting the 13 Pauline letters and the 7 general or Catholic Epistles. However, Hebrews lacks the basic ingredients that identified ancient letters. There is no mention of author, no mention of addressees, no greeting, no thanksgiving section and no prayer for the readers in the opening lines. The closing verses of Hebrews 13 do reflect the traditional way in which a letter should close. Hebrews is often compared with Romans. Hebrews presents the Person of salvation; Romans presents the way of salvation. The book of Hebrews focuses on the ceremonial law of the Old Testament; and compares to Romans, on the moral law of time. Ã¢â¬Å"Romans moves from law to grace, and Hebrews, from shadow to substance. The redaction criticism of this passage shows that in regards to the Old Testament Leviticus is the book of the covenant of the Law and Romans which is parallel to Hebrews shows us Gods grace and mercy. Contents The key word of this Epistle is Ã¢â¬Å"betterÃ¢â¬ . It occurs thirteen times in the thirteen chapters. Christ is shown as better than angels (cc1-2), better than Moses (c.3), better than Joshua (c.4), better than Aaron (cc.5-10).Christianity is declared to be a better covenant (c.8) It offers a better rest, an better priesthood, a better altar, a better sacrifice. The theme of the book is the superiority of Christianity to Judaism. In every way it is a better religion. The meaning of the word Ã¢â¬Å"
Monday, February 3, 2020
Should affirmative action be used to eliminate injustice - Essay Example Even though we would like to believe that discrimination of minorities is outlawed, subtle and covert forms of discrimination exist across all societal systems. It exists not just in practise but also in the thinking of man, conscious and unconscious biases regarding minorities undervalue their qualities and overvalue the qualities of the majority. Another point to be noted here is that all the major universities in the world, all major companies in the world, everyone who has a say in the Ã¢â¬Ëladder to successesÃ¢â¬â¢ is looking for candidates who are academically motivated, confident, have high self-esteem and are goal-oriented. These traits are created, honed and maintained by a system which is mostly majority governed. However, academic motivation is a little hard to come by in public schools where teachers are rarely around. Similarly, notions of confidence, high self-esteem and motivation would never go down well with a single mother who is left with the responsibility of raising her kid on her own. How can we possibly question the goal-orientation of a candidate from a ghetto, if all he could hear in the streets each day was the sound of rapid gun fire? The poverty and economic disadvantage that many minority groups suffer deprive them of the traits that most ideal positions require. But are there any laws written to counter the psychological and social costs of discrimination which rarely end within a single generation? Considering the hue and cry being made over the need for objectivity in the distribution of benefits, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t overlooking the differentials that deny access to benefits for certain groups, being subjective? Affirmative action Ã¢â¬â the way ahead It is under these circumstances of injustices that the author believes affirmative action becomes imperative. Affirmative action works to bridge the gap of discrimination which we knowingly or unknowingly create. Most times affirmative action is not about bringing the competition dow n to the level of the minorities; it is about removing the upper edge majorities have gained, having played the game over centuries. The author believes that affirmative action should be used as a tool to eliminate injustice because affirmative action, per say, is not about being fair, it is about eliminating notions of pride and superiority that come from culturally sanctioned positions, enjoyed unknowingly by a majority due to the accident of birth. It thus helps level a rough playing field, removing barriers from the path of particular groups who have been stunted in their attempt to reach success. Hence, affirmative action helps eliminate injustice by being unjust itself. Answering the critics Critics and proponents of the concept of affirmative action often see it as an act of charity, a generosity shown to justify the wrongs their ancestors had committed; it is from here that the feeling of inferiority creeps in. In the 1950s when a white male was given preference for a job ov er an equally deserving black male, it was never seen as charity. Nor is it considered charity when a government today gives humongous tax breaks to a Ã¢â¬ËdeservingÃ¢â¬â¢