Monday, September 30, 2019

Population Crisis

POPOULATION CRISIS SUBMITTED TO: MS. AMNA NAVEED SUBMITTED BY: USSAMA JAVED AFTAB IQBAL M. UMAIR SIDDIQUE RAZA AMJAD POPOULATION CRISIS SUBMITTED TO: MS. AMNA NAVEED LECTURER MANGMENT SCIENCES COMSATS LAHORE SUBMITTED BY: USSAMA JAVED ciit/fa09-bba-146/lhr AFTAB IQBAL ciit/fa09-bba-009/lhr M. UMAIR SIDDIQUE ciit/fa09-bba-053/lhr RAZA AMJAD ciit/fa09-bba-116/lhr Submission Date: May3,2010 COMSATS Institute Of Information Technology Lahore ACLNOLDGEMENT First of all, we would like to thank our friends for assisting and helping us in our research. We would like to thank our teacher for helping us how to do study. We would like to thank our librarian for letting us borrow some books, for the computer lab incharge for letting us use computers. We would like to thank our parents for their financial and never ending support, for the help in our study and for its success. And it would not be successful without God who guides us in our everyday life and activites, we thank Him for the good health He has given to us, and for the success of our study. For all the people who helped us a lot, thank you very much and may god bless you all†¦ Management Sciences COMSATS Institute Of Information Technology Defence Road Lahore April 3,2010 Falcons BBA- Batch: 12- Sec: C COMSATS Lahore Subject: letter of authorization Dear falcons We are glad to inform you that you have been selected to undergo a research and prepare a report regarding â€Å"POPOULATION CRISIS â€Å". In the report you should completely analyze the situation, state responsible factors and also suggest remedy for it. We will give you every assistance required for the research. In case of any difficulty feel free to let us know. We will appreciate if you submit your findings in a month. Sincerely Amna Naveed Falcons BBA-Batch:12-Sec:C COMSATS Lahore May 3, 2010 Ms. Amna Naveed Lecturer Management Sciences COMSATS Lahore Subject: Letter of transmittal Dear Ms. Naveed As you requested here is our report on â€Å"POPOULATION CRISIS â€Å" . This report is completely according to your instructions and requirements. This report is based on thorough study and includes the complete analysis of the problem and remedy for it. I am sure that the report will give you complete help to evaluate the situation. Finally and thoroghly to put an end to the problems of overpopulation, health crisis, food crisis, governence crisis. It was so nice of you to assign us this task. Please let me know if I can be of further assiastance. Sincerely Falcons TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents page Introduction 9 Overpopulation 10 History of population of world 11 Population of Pakistan 13 Major crisis due to overpopulation 16 Major causes of overpopulation 24 Summary 26 Conclusions 27 Recommendations 28 Appendix 29 Bibliography 32 Glossary 33 Index 34 INTRODUCTION This report is about the population crisis. It describes little about the population of world but its focus is on overpopulation in Pakistan. The purpose of report is to make awareness that the base all the crisis in the country is huge increase in population. The food crisis, health crisis, etc are all due to overpopoulation. On independence the population of Pakistan was just 3 crore but within last few decades there was huge increase in population. Overpopulation is a condition where an organism’s number exceeds the carrying capacity of its habitat. In common parlance the term to the relationship between the human population and its environment, the Earth. A society is called overpopulated when the resources are less than the number of individuals there. OVERPOULATION Overpopulation is a condition where an organism's numbers exceed the carrying capacity of its habitat. In common parlance, the term often refers to the relationship between the human population and its environment, the Earth. Overpopulation does not depend only on the size or density of the population, but on the ratio of population to available sustainable resources. It also depends on the way resources are used and distributed throughout the population If a given environment has a population of 10 individuals, but there is food or drinking water enough for only 9, then in closed system where no trade is possible, that environment is overpopulated; if the population is 100 but there is enough food, shelter, and water for 200 for the indefinite future, then it is not overpopulated. Overpopulation can result from an increase in births, a decline in mortality rates due to medical advances, from an increase in immigration, or from an unsustainable biome and depletion of re sources. It is possible for very sparsely-populated areas to be overpopulated, as the area in question may have a meager or non-existent capability to sustain human life (e. g. the middle of the Sahara Desert). The resources to be considered when evaluating whether an ecological niche is overpopulated include clean water, clean air, food, shelter, warmth, and other resources necessary to sustain life. If the quality of human life is addressed, there may be additional resources considered, such as medical care, education, proper sewage treatment and waste disposal. Overpopulation places competitive stress on the basic life sustaining resources, leading to a diminished quality of life. The rapid increase in human population over the course of the 20th century has raised concerns about the Earth's ability to sustain a large number of inhabitants. In 2009, the estimated annual growth rate was 1. 10%, and the world population stood at roughly 6. 7 billion. Current projections show a steady decline in the growth rate, and a population of around 9 billion by the year 2050. The scientific consensus is that the current population expansion and accompanying increase in usage of resources is linked to threats to the ecosystem. The InterAcademy Panel Statement on Population Growth, which was ratified by 58 member academies in 1994, called the expansion in human numbers â€Å"unprecedented†, and stated that many environmental problems were aggravated by the population expansion. At the time, the world population stood at 5. 5 billion, and optimistic scenarios predicted a peak of 7. 8 billion by 2050, a number that current estimates show will be reached around 2030. HISTORY OF POPULATION OF WORLD If you were to take a standard sheet of writing paper . 1mm thick and cut it into two sheets, placing one atop the other, it would then be . 2mm thick. Then, cutting the stack of two and making a stack of 4 sheets, it would then be . 4mm thick. Believe it or not, if you continued to do this just one hundred times, doubling the size of the stack each time, the thickness of he stack would be 1. 334 x 1012 light-years. This is an example of exponential or geometric growth, where the rate of growth is always proportional to it's present size. Exponential growth also applies to the the human population. It begins growing very slowly, but over generations the growth rate increases more and more rapidly, similar to a snowball affect. It took the human population thousands o f years to reach 1 billion in 1804. However, it took only 123 years for us to double to 2 billion by 1927. The population hit 4 billion in 1974 (only 47 years), and if we continue at our current rate, the human population will reach 8 billion in 2028. Doubling from our present count of 6. 8 billion to 13. 6 billion will have a much greater impact than our last couple doublings combined. Overpopulation isn't just population density (amount of people per landmass). Overpopulation applies even moreso to the number of people in an area exceeding the resources and the carrying capacity of the environment necessary to sustain human activities. draw:frame} So much focus is placed on the rapid population growth in third world countries. However, when we compare lifestyles of the rich countries vs. the poor countries, the rich countries are a much greater problem. For example, Americans constitute only five percent of the world’s total population, but consume 26% of the world’s energy. Just as much as the population size, we need to consider the resources consumed by each person, and the damage done by technologies used to supply them. Overpopulation is when the number of people can not be permanently maintained without depleting resources and without degrading the environment and the people's standard of living. Because we are rapidly using up resources around the world, virtually all nations are overpopulated. This applies even more so to the rich nations. As we use up the resources, the earth's carrying capacity continues to decrease. POPULATION OF PAKISTAN The first Pakistan Census after the proclamation of independence of Pakistan was conducted in 1951. It was decreed that censuses have to be carried out once in 10 years. The second census was conducted in 1961. However the third one was conducted in 1972 because of war with India. The fourth census was held in 1981. The fifth census was conducted delayed in March 1998. The sixth census of Pakistan is planned in October 2008. POPULATION BY PROVINCE/REGION SINCE 1951 Today’s Snerue The above tables sumrazies the figures of population from first day till now. It is clear from above that in 1951 population of pakistan was not very large drastic change in population occurred after 1971. Now the growth rate of population is 1. percent which is worst growth rate of the world. Now Pakistan is on no:3 in terms of population in all the world. MAJOR CRISIS DUE TO OVERPOPULATION Following are some major crisis and problems which we facing due to overpopulation: Food Crisis Health Crisis Pollution Diseases Terrorism Governance Crisis Poverty Unemployment Now we will discuss all of them one by one: FOOD CRISIS The world financial experts have placed Pakista n on a list of 36 countries that face a serious food crisis, warning that if the situation worsens people may raid storage facilities for food. Like rest of the world Pakistan is also facing food crisis, and it has two sides; one is unavailability of edibles and second is soaring prices due to gap in demand and supply of edibles. According to the website of UN International task force on global food crisis the price of food commodities has risen by 83 per cent over the last 36 months on international markets, and it is estimated that 854 million people are in a state of food insecurity around the world. World prices of food grains have risen manifold in the last several months due to varied reasons including increased demand in emerging economies, to poor harvests and farming methods, oil prices, massive diversion of food grains for making bio-fuels, provision of land for bio-fuels, global warming, high population growth, changed eating habits, manipulative role of international financial markets with reduced role of national government. United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon lead a concerted effort by 27 key UN agencies to tackle the growing crisis caused by a worldwide sharp rise in basic foodstuff prices at a conference in the Swiss capital Bern. In case of Pakistan, the food crisis comes hand in hand with an energy crisis and in uncertain political environment along with the extremist threats. It is expected that food and energy shortages could become worse this summer. Food shortages do not make a companion to long periods of energy outages (load-shedding). This dangerous mix can bring the political plans of political shenanigans to dogs if these basic needs remain unmet. More problem appears to those economies that are not agriculture based and Pakistan is a wheat and rice producing country and should not have had to face an acute shortage. a very important question arises here how did it get to this stage? It is believed that Agriculture scientists will have to introduce modern technologies for high yield at low price to enable the government to cope with the persistent crisis of food shortage. Even the UN Secretary general has said that agriculture is need to be improved for coup up current food crisis all over the world. After a quarter century of relative neglect, agriculture is back on the international agenda, sadly with a vengeance, Mr. Ban said in an address at the start of the three-day high-level segment of the annual meeting of the Commission for Sustainable Development (CSD). The onset of the current food crisis has highlighted the fragility of our success in feeding the world’s growing population with the technologies of the first green revolution and subsequent agricultural improvements, he added. According to Daily Times an Economic analyst, Khalid Mahmood underlined the need for increasing agricultural yields though usage of hybrid seeds, better water management, increased role of government for ensuring effective safety and support mechanisms such as making a reservoir of food grain, and also public-private partnerships to overcome the crisis. The skyrocketing prices are jeopardizing the purchasing power of financially crumbling consumers. The price of food items such as vegetables, chicken and meat has increased by more than 20 percent just in one month, which has further made the half of the population of country food insecure. It is stated that 50 percent of the population is talking less calories recognized for average human need, 20 percent out of those 50 percent population, bottom line people were the greater suffers and were miserably struggling to meet their basic food needs even by compromising on their non-food expenses. The current crisis would further worsen if the government is failed to come up with an informed policy and decisions, the majority of the people particularly the poor would be the greater sufferer, however their attention is more towards the political issues and people are suffering due to energy and food shortage. There are several lacunae in domestic policy recognized and role of the previous government primarily for not realizing the strength of the crisis that was coupled with poor decisions making including the management failure in the worse crisis of 2007 when even international oil prices were not so high, unavailability of fresh seeds and finally the export of rice which directly increased the need of wheat. The previous government paid less attention to demand and supply management, rather tried to address the issue properly and developing long term measures; it waged ineffective ad-hoc measures such as subsidies while oil-driven economy of Pakistan is facing serious shortage of energy resulting in increased cost of production and transportation. The situation of food shortage in Pakistan calls for a multi-sectoral strategy to address this serious issue. it is also important to note that Ministry of Finance alone cannot provide a solution to the worsening problem. Pakistan needs cohesive strategy including the focus on revising the import parity; pricing formula and revised structure of taxes levied on petroleum products, further demand and supply management in energy sector, agriculture, and communication. it is also suggested that the Planning Commission of Pakistan should take lead in formulating proposals in this regard. The culture of accountability of the political leadership which was responsible for current energy deficit and the resultant price hikes; is also needed. Another important point in this regard is atta smuggling to Afghanistan though NWFP atta dealers saythat the atta was exported to Afghanistan under the trade policy and a regulatory tax of Rs500 is charged on every bag of 100-kg exported to Afghanistan. It is also said that Currently, there is no smuggling on Afghanistan level and whatever is transported to Afghanistan is legal, and is on accordance with an agreement signed between Pakistan and Afghanistan, that is an open lie. Interestingly President George W. Bush has urged Afghan Govt. o gain self food sufficiency to reduce food pressure on Pakistan in SHARM El-SHEIKH Egypt. Government is taking steps to curb this situation; Minster for Privatization and Investment Syed Naveed Qamar has directed Utility Stores Corporation (USC) to ensure sufficient supply of aâ‚ ¬? attaaâ‚ ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ and other necessities on its outlets across the country. Syed Naveed Qamar, The minister said that the government was making all-out efforts to p rovide essential items like atta, ghee and sugar to the people in sufficient quantity. Furthermore the government has warned the wheat hoarders to offer their wheat by Monday (May 19) to the public sector procurement agencies; otherwise their stocks will be confiscated. A detailed briefing on current wheat situation was given to the Minister for Food, Agriculture and Livestock(MINFAL) Mr. Nazar Muhammad Gondal by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock. HEALTH CRISIS According to a report approximately there are 15000 births per day in Pakistan. For these children at least 15 hospitals each with 400-500 beds are required which is not possible. No rich state can provide such huge facility on daily basis then how can Pakistan? After all it is develop country. We are facing health crisis now a days just due such large birth rate. In 1970s health facilities were available to everyone because at that time our population was just 1. 5 crore which is nothing as compared to today’s population. POLLUTION For the first time ever human enterprise may be impacting planet earth in a permanent way. How is this possible? What are we doing now that humans have not been doing for millennia? Several obvious things come to mind. We are creating some very long-lasting waste material as a by-product of generating energy. This includes radioactive waste, and it also includes carbon dioxide, the major contributor to the planetary greenhouse. We are putting gases into the atmosphere and substances into the ground that take a very long time to be absorbed into the general biosphere. We are removing old growth timber faster than it can replace itself. We are flushing substances into the world ocean that can affect the entire oceanic food chain. Only three of these items are â€Å"new,† radioactive waste and manmade long-lasting gases and waste materials. Humans have been doing the remainder for as long as humans have existed. Why, then, are we only now experiencing a global impact? The simple answer is—too many people. Planet earth has an amazing ability to absorb and take into stride incredible amounts of â€Å"stuff. † Our biosphere has evolved an entire range of mechanisms for cleaning itself up after both non-human and human input. Overload the system, however, and it grinds to a halt. A stream continuously surrounded by a herd of bison will become as contaminated and unfit for further use as one overloaded with human sewage. Yet each can handle reasonable levels of contamination. The problem usually is not what, but how much. The remaining problems are not really problems—they all are just symptoms of an underlying problem: too many people. So long as we address only the symptoms, the problem will remain unsolved, and—because of its nature—will continue to grow. World-wide we are extending the average human life-span; world-wide we are reducing infant mortality; world-wide, across the human spectrum, we are reducing disease and death. With the exception of some industrialized nations, however, the world-wide birth-rate is going up. It doesn’t take an advanced degree to see where all this leads. An overflowing world population will ultimately overload our planet’s short-term ability to handle everything we throw at it. Increasing greenhouse temperatures, polluted groundwater, single species forests, dying abyssal food chains—these may just be the beginning. In the final analysis, fortunately, planet earth is self-regulating. Unfortunately, this self-regulation is on a time scale that dwarfs human experience. DISEASES Disease is not a severe problem when it is on a small scale. We can handle them easily when few people are affected. Now as our population is very huge diseases spread very rapidly because everyone has a social life also. When diseases become common in a large number of masses then it is very difficult to provide sufficient treatment to all of them. Attack of â€Å" Dangi† last year is the obvious example. TERRORISM Terrorism is simply a state of insecurity. There are a number of causes of terrorism one of them is poverty which is due to overpopulation. Thus, we can say that overpopulation is one of the causes of â€Å" Terrorism â€Å". In our country the basic biological needs ( food, shelter and cloth ) are not being satisfied. Some extremists and Mullahs ensure people that they will satisfy there basic needs if you come with us. The poor people have no other choice thus they shake hand with Mullahs. When state is not providing basic needs to masses and these extremists are providing then people will go with them. Thus people feel no hesitation in destroying their country on the command of these people. Terrorism started majorly during and after General Zia’s Era and there was huge increase in population during the period of Zia. There were only 500 â€Å" Madrasas† in 1977 but in 1987 their number reached 2000. GOVERNANCE CRISIS When people are not getting proper food, health facilities etc and other basic facilities then it means that government is doing nothing or in other words we can say that government is unable to govern the state. Now a days this all is happening in Pakistan. Most of the people blames government for this but government is not solely responsible for it. Its major reason overpopulation. Government can run a state with small population very smoothly but it is very tough to handle millions of people. POVERTY Poverty is majorly due to overpopulation. When there are scarce resources and a population of billions then how people can live a life of boom. Pakistan has a population of approximately 17 crore and resources for only 12. 5 crore then the remaining people have to lead a life full of poverty. In 1970s the the resources were more than the number of individuals but afterwards we just increased our population not resources. Therefore, we are facing such a worst situation. UNEMPLOYMENT Employment is very important for any individual to live a happy life. But unfortunately it is not available to everyone in Pakistan, its major reason is overpopulation. The 60% of our population is less in 25 years in age. The population of Pakistan is considered as most young population of the world. It is impossible for any government to provide jobs to such a huge number of people. When a large number of people have no jobs then economic growth would be nothing. MAJOR CAUSES OF OVERPOPULATION Decline in the Death Rate: The fall in death rates that is decline in mortality rate is one fundamental causes of overpopulation. Owing to the dvancements in medicine, man has found cures to the previously fatal diseases. The new inventions in medicine have brought in treatments for most of the dreadful diseases. This has resulted in an increase in the life expectancy of individuals. Mortality rate has declined leading to an increase in population. Owing to modern medications and improved treatments to various illnesses, the overall death rate has gone down. Th e brighter side of it is that we have been able to fight many diseases and prevent deaths. On the other hand, the medical boon has brought with it, the curse of overpopulation. Rise in the Birth Rate: Thanks to the new discoveries in nutritional science, we have been able to bring in increase in the fertility rates of human beings. Medicines of today can boost the reproductive rate in human beings. There are medicines and treatments, which can help in conception. Thus, science has led to an increase in birth rate. This is certainly a reason to be proud and happy but advances in medicine have also become a cause of overpopulation. Migration: Immigration is a problem in some parts of the world. If the inhabitants of various countries migrate to a particular part of the world and settle over there, the area is bound to suffer from the ill effects of overpopulation. If the rates of emigration from a certain nation do not match the rates of immigration to that country, overpopulation makes its way. The country becomes overly populated. Crowding of immigrants in certain parts of the world, results in an imbalance in the density of population. Lack of Education: Illiteracy is another important cause of overpopulation. Those lacking education fail to understand the need to prevent excessive growth of population. They are unable to understand the harmful effects that overpopulation has. They are unaware of the ways to control population. Lack of family planning is commonly seen in the illiterate lot of the world. This is one of the major factors leading to overpopulation. Due to ignorance, they do not take to family planning measures, thus contributing to a rise in population. Viewing the issue of increasing population optimistically, one may say that overpopulation means the increase in human resources. The increase in the number of people is the increase in the number of productive hands and creative minds. But we cannot ignore the fact that the increase in the number producers implies an increase in the number of consumers. Greater number of people requires a greater number of resources. Not every nation is capable of providing its people with the adequate amount of resources. The ever-increasing population will eventually leave no nation capable of providing its people with the resources they need to thrive. When the environment fails to accommodate the living beings that inhabit it, overpopulation becomes a disaster. SUMMARY This report is about population crisis which is the most severe problem of present world. Pakistan is one of those countries whose population has increased dramatically and now the population of Pakistan is approximetly 20 crore. All major crisis and problems which Pakistan is facing are majorly due to overpopulation. The big reasons of overpopulation are decline in death rate, increase in birth rate and lack of education. If population growth would not be controlled then Pakistan will have a population of 40 crore in 2030. CONCLUTIONS From all above discussion it is concluded that overpopulation is the most important problem that we are facing now a days. If it is not controlled now then we have to face some severe crisis in near future. Our population is increaing rapidly and if it keep on growing at the same rate then in 2030 the population of pakistan will become largest population fo the world. It is obvious that that with all our efforts we can not manage such a huge population. Thus, we have to take some steps to control population. Our resources are not as much to feed such a large population due to which we are facing food crisis, health crisis, etc. Pakistan is a developing country and it can not increase its resources to such a graet extent. Due to overpopulation in the near future Pakistan will have to face civil war. RECOMMENDATIONS Following are some recommendations to control overpopulation: Educate people regarding population crisis Encourage Immigrations Career Opportunities For The Women Develop policies like one or two children each {text:list-item} Do not allow refugees to enter in Pakistan APPENDIX Demographics of *Islamic Republic of Pakistan* Population of Pakistan, 1961-2003 POPULATION BY PROVINCE/REGION SINCE 1951 POPOULATION OF WORLD {draw:frame} TODAY’S PAKISTAN {draw:frame} BIBLOGRAPHY www. google. com www. wikipedia. com www. ask. com www. census. gov. pk www. times. com www. answers. com GLOSSARY *Overpopulation: *Overpopulation is a condition where an organism's numbers exceed the carrying capacity of its habitat. In common parlance, the term often refers to the relationship between the human population and its environment, the Earth. INDEX Population crisis, 9 * Food Crisis, 16 * Pakistan, 9 Domestic Policy*, 18* Overpopulation, 9 Multy-Sectoral Stratgy, *18* *Individual, 9 * * Ministry Of Finance*, 18 Organism, 10 Health Crisis, 20 Carrying Capacity, 10 Hospitals, 20 Habitat, 10 Pollution, 20 Environment, 10 Radioactive Waste, 20 *Resources, 10* * *Ground Water, 20 Interacting, 11 * *Diseases, 21 *Exponential Growth, 11* * *Social Life 21 *Human population, 11* * Terrorism*, 22 *Rich Countries, 12* * I*nsecurity, 22 *Americans, 12* * *Biological Needs, 22 *Census, 13* * *General Zia, 22 *Birth Rate, 14* * Governance Crisis, 2* Death Rate, 14 Poverty, 23 *Age Structure, 14* * *Scarce Resources, 23 Unemployment, 23 Decline In Death Rate, 24 Rise In Birth Rate, 24 Migration, 25 Lack Of education, 24 Conclusion, 27

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Regeneration and Delusion

Explore how Pat Barker portrays the theme of escape in Regeneration and explain what this tells you about the effects of war. â€Å"In peace, children inter their parents; War violates the order of nature and causes parents to inter their children. † † Herodotus (484BC – 430BC) Regeneration is a novel that tells the story of soldiers of World War One sent to an asylum due to emotional tribulation. Regeneration connects as a â€Å"back door into the present†, particularly with the theme of escape; and Barker chooses to portray this through her faction novel.Inveterate indications of escape throughout the novel are masculation, sex, death and a sense of reality. It is genuinely hard to be sure what the majority of people in Britain knew about the war and battles like the Somme from the media of the day. The newspapers and their reporters offered a wide range of styles and opinions – as they still do – but often walked a difficult line between pa triotic support for the war and a desire to convey its terrible nature. An extensive atmosphere of patriotism was generated by insincere information such as the propaganda.The media were supercilious, dehumanising the Germans to attract more soldiers, promising them that they would gain rare pportunities such as travel. Men, as well as women, were disillusioned. The reality of war was distorted and no longer became a heroic affair. Sassoon may be disillusioned when he mentions that this war may have been Justified â€Å"†¦ when it started†¦ † (Pg. 13). The authenticity of world war one was erroneous to the world surrounding the war. What the world saw was a picture that was glorified by the continuous mendaciousness made by the government and the commanding officers themselves.In Regeneration the reader is presented with Sassoon's ‘Soldier's Declaration' (Pg. 3) written in July 1917 to declare that the war is futile. Sassoon's declaration, a â€Å"wilful defi ance of military authority', clearly and logically states his decision to stop fghting as a soldier in world war one and clearly paints a vision of escape in the readers minds. He believes that the purpose of war has changed; what was once a war of liberation and defence has become one of aggression. This is a historical document and is one that was not suppressed merely due to the fact that Sassoon was a commanding officer.Because he was a commanding officer his document truly revealed the ways his beliefs got him to escape the war but make a trong argument too.. In Regeneration mental escape is the only way to relieve yourself of the war for a second until the next gunfire, the next shell blows or the next person comes into your care. Burns is a character who seems to be incapable of escaping his mental trauma caused by the war. He would tell you that the images of dying men and being ‘inside the stomach of a half blown German soldier' (Pg. 19) with the stench of rotting inn ards devouring your nostrils would scar you mentally. eing wedged into a hole; and the heroic adventure was not nearly as heroic as the oldiers would have hoped for, Barker represented this through the struggle of men being sent to Craiglockhart and still never escaping the trenches as victims were immune to normal human life and trench life was still attached to their lives. The verisimilitudes of the characters of this novel conform to our sense of reality. Barker uses unadorned dialect and language which was not used at the time to maintain a sense of veracity. It seems as though every character has a need to escape and Barker presents us with this idea through her language.Barker changes her use of language by changing the tmosphere and stripping away the dialogue, to romantic and poetic. She does this to remind us that Sassoon is sensitive and has a poetic side to him and this makes the reader feel closer to him, particularly when Graves identifies him as â€Å"Sass.. † A technique in which Barker depicts escape is bird imagery. This could be linked with religion in a way that white doves were a major symbol in Christianity and were symbolic of freedom and peace. Just the idea of birds makes the reader wonder about how they fly so freely and Burns manages to grab hold of this by â€Å"drifting off to sleep† (Pg. ) He is entering a dreamful state in which â€Å"he could stay there forever†. His dream reminds the reader of the preciousness of escape â€Å"A shaft of sunlight filtered through the leaves (†¦ ) shone sapphire, emerald, and amethyst. † This is proof that he can in fact escape in his dream world. This shaft of light filtering through the leaves could be perceived as a motion of escape; Barker is hinting a glimmer of escape but not fully letting the light shine through representing the mental state of Burns. There is also a sense of escape though bird imagery again when Rivers is â€Å"under the spell of flickeri ng birds† (Pg. ) however this is in a different light. With Burns, his sense of escape was in a dreamful manner but with Prior's suffocation, the bird imagery sheds a new light, one of no escape. Even though Prior is out of war, his own problems still bother him and this shows that escape is Just an illusion. Another way Barker chooses to portray momentary escape is through the theme of sex and death. She chooses to depict her use of this type of escape through her creation of a character; Prior and her fairly new character, Sarah Lumb.Barker uses sensual language in the graveyard scene which is highly contrasting the general etting; sex in the midst of death. Generally, you are not meant to have this kind of interaction in such a holy place, this was a sign of disrespect. Barker could perhaps be commenting on how the war shook people's religious views. Living through the war and being surrounded by death must have changed people's views and no wonder attitudes towards sex cha nged as it was for some if only means of comfort and life affirmation. as Barker is subtly suggesting.However, the life ofa chick consists of living and dying in the hands of humans and this resembles the scene of the war; men were orn, sent to war, and slaughtered in the hands of human beings. It almost seems as though Barker is using allegory to describe the process of a hatching chick which ironically resemble the lives of the soldiers. (Pg. 1 52) â€Å"He remembered them struggling out of the eggs (†¦ ) curiously powerful (†¦ ) now the same chicks were scruffy, bedraggled things running in the coops. † Rivers escapes the environment of Craiglockhart however he doesn't escape his patients.He writes to â€Å"David Burns† which shows what a caring fgure he is. He also begins to address Burns as ‘David' and this shows how the relationship between hem is progressing. The perspective of escape changes when a female is finally given the opportunity to want to escape: Sarah Lumb. Barker being the omniscient narrator finally allows the reader to see how Sarah really feels. She needs to escape as she â€Å"began to feel distinctly green and hairy'. (Pg. 159) because the state of the men were too hard to handle.The irony of this is that men harmed man, but couldn't handle the sight of their destruction. Earlier Barker presented us with Sassoon's resentment towards the older generation for seeing the war as glory, and now Sarah Lumb also feels a sense of anger as â€Å"she trode on through the heat, not caring where she was going, furious with herself, the war†¦ everything†. She is angry at the country for sending all of these men to war as is Prior and this could represent a link between how men and women felt the same about war if you had been one of the very many to experience it.In a reader's perspective, this also shows and agreement between social class differences as Prior and Sarah are both of different class and shar e the same resentment which shows an escape of the social barrier and some sort of relief of the war. Herodotus' quote at the beginning sums up that in war there's no escape, you get hrown into a war torn asylum and spend the rest of your life, if any, trying to escape, through writing, through poetry, through art, Just like Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon.However there was a chance of escape if you were seriously injured, and even then you were seen as a shirker and a failure and never mentally escaped the torture of war. Propaganda lead to young boys wanting to go to the war to fght for their country, meaning the children did in fact inter their parents, and once theyd lived the reality and managed to get away and go home, their parents did inter their hildren. Older generations that didn't experience war saw it more as a playground of little toy soldiers they could fling around making it seem a lot more calm and fun than it actually was, but the reality was quite different.Men became so lonely in the trenches and at the hospitals that any kind of physical contact from women became precious and in Priors case, the feeling of war was â€Å"like sex† and euphoria. His escape was Sarah, and many other men would find sex through prostitutes and this shows through death; even then their souls would not be at peace and fully escaped as the ar would go on, but as one soldier departed the battle grounds, a new recruit would be put in his place allured by the propaganda and media.This displays a cycle of curtailed escape. There was no real escape in war as the pattern of death and new recruitment followed the cycle of life and even though this shows a great level of patriotism, futility is the only word to describe war. Bibliography Barker, Pat – Regeneration (England, 1991. Viking) Reusch, Wera – ‘A backdoor into the present' an interview with Pat Barker, Germany. Lolapress (Translated from German) Nixon, Rob – An Interview with Pat Barker (England, February, 1992)

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Innovation in management services in supply chains(SCM) Essay

Innovation in management services in supply chains(SCM) - Essay Example Importance of innovation Innovation is best described as the development and creation of unique possibilities for making value added contributions in a particular industry. The entire process of innovation goes beyond the traditional method of implementing new manufacturing processes or developing innovative products because it comprises of much broader aspects such as innovation in the market, organization and input resources (Kim, Kumar, & Kumar, 2012; Ozturen & Sevil, 2009). Innovation in tourism and hospitality industry In the last few years, the researchers such as Boon-itt and Pongpanarat (2011), Martinez-Ros and Orfila-Sintes (2009) and Spekman, Spear and Kamauff (2002) have done extensive studies on the role of innovation in service sector especially tourism and hospitality industry. Tourism and hospitality industry consists of many areas and dimensions and the study is catered across different elements. As the world has become global, travelling to different destinations wor ldwide is now the favorite leisure activity of majority of the consumers of any society. It has been reported by many countries such as France, USA, UK, Malaysia, Singapore, Turkey, China and Canada that the number of tourists is increasing at a faster pace than expected (Nassiry, Ghorban, & Nasiri, 2012). In order to provide exceptional tourism experience to the visitors, the tourism and hospitality industry of each country has to introduce innovative products and services that will meet the expectation level of the customers (Anthony, Johnson, & Sinfield, 2008). This industry is mainly made up of tour operators, travel agencies, hotels and accommodation service providers and airline companies. One of the key areas of focus by the players in the respective industry is the development of an effective Supply Chain Management (SCM) that ensures that the tourists are provided the most satisfying level of services (Zhang, Song, & Huang, 2009). Real life examples of SCM initiatives and i nnovations Since the demands of customers change at an accelerating pace in each market, it is required by every company to closely monitor the changing patterns of innovation requirements in the products and services. The customers of tourism and hospitality industry are looking for open service innovation which was the concept introduced by FedEx. Almost all the firms existing in the industry have ensured that they employ the latest technology in their services so that they have a strong presence in the market (Gunasekara, 2006). The consumers need to know about the tourism and hospitality industries so that they develop an interest in trying out the services. Some of the initiatives that have been observed in the Tourism supply chain (TSC) are integration of supplier and buyer relationship (Rizova, 2006), taking the suppliers on board when developing new products so that the feasibility of the project can be effectively designed (Handfield & Lawson, 2008) and eliminating the unne cessary intermediary steps so that the cost can be saved to a much larger extent (Miles, 2008). Such types of initiatives is a necessary act to be conducted by the organisations as

Friday, September 27, 2019

Firm's Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Firm's - Essay Example This is an important figure to know because from this, the revenue price for each product can be calculated. The formula is shown below: To determine Average Total Cost, we need to add the Total Fixed Cost to the above equation. The Total Variable Cost and Total Fixed Cost are summed together and divided by the units of output per day. This figure is another important number to know because it can be added together with the Average Variable Cost to determine the cost per unit. In this case, it would be $49 ($22+$27). The formula for Average Total Cost is displayed below: To find out Worker Productivity, we simply take the units of output per day and divide it by the number of workers. This will give us the number of units that each worker produces each day. This formula is shown below: Both sets of calculations have the firm’s output price at $25 and the Average Variable Cost at $22. The difference is in the Average Total Cost. The first scenario has ATC at $27, while the second scenario has an ATC of $37. However, in both of these cases, the AVC is lower that the output price. Because of this, the firm should not be shut down immediately in either case. In terms of break-even numbers, we need to divide the total loss by the daily wage of each worker. For the first example, the $400,000 loss would be divided by $80 per worker (400,000/80), which equals 5,000 workers. If 5,000 workers were laid off, it would leave a workforce of 45,000. If we assume that production remains steady at 200,000 units per day, this means that Worker Productivity would have to increase from 4 units per day to 4.4 units per day (200,000/45,000). The second case would have a loss of $2,400,000 divided by $80 per worker (2,400,000/80), which would result in a loss of 30,000 workers, leaving the workforce at 20,000 workers. If we assume that production output (200,000 units) remains the same, then each worker would have to produce 10 units per

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Leadership and Change management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Leadership and Change management - Essay Example An effective form of leadership can be recognized as one of the chief determinants for an organization to attain competitive position in the fiercely growing business market (Andriopoulos and Dawson 197-199). The report aims to demonstrate the fundamental concept of leadership and its major significance in organizational success or failure. With regard to proactively recognize the roles and importance of leadership, the discussion of this project report enables to understand the leadership styles and functions of Jeff Bezos, the founder and the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of, Inc. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW With regard to the study of Collins (2002), certain crucial factors like increased level of internationalization along with globalization and prevalence of extreme business market competition denote the emerging need of performing effective leadership practices within an organization. These effectual leadership practices can encourage the employees to perform better than th e existing efforts perform by them. Moreover, the practices help in enhancing the empowerment skills of every organizational member and generating new ideas in the workplace, resulting in accomplishing predetermined business targets of the organizations (Collins, â€Å"The Effectiveness of Managerial Leadership Development Programs: A Meta-Analysis of Studies from 1982-2001†). ... k of the recent activities and (3) learning about the challenges of working responsibility that occurs during the development level of leadership in an organization. Relating to this significant concern, the above discussed methods clearly define the selection of appropriate individuals as leaders who possess the ability to endure the indistinctness, relativity of knowledge along with the possessiveness of determining and continuing to learn innovative methods of working tasks (McCauley, â€Å"Leader Development: A Review of Research†). 3. COMPANY HISTORY Amazon is regarded as one of the foremost and renowned online retailers, which deals in selling various sorts of products over the web (internet). The company was founded by Jeff Bezos in the year 1994 and started its e-commerce business in the year 1995. With the rapid pace of technological developments along with the fiercely growing online business market, the organization has been recognized to develop its brand position through developing quality products or services to the global clients through online. Currently, the organization tends to offer a huge collection of products or services that include books, electronic goods, computer parts and accessories along with clothing and furniture items to the global customers over the medium of internet (Krishnamurthy, â€Å"Amazon.Com - A Business History†). 4. HISTORY OF THE FOUNDER Jeffrey P. Bezos (Jeff Bezos) is viewed to be a highly renowned name in the global online retailing business industry. The leader became much popular for his exceptional leadership skills that eventually made Amazon to become one of the successful and giant online stores in the respective business industry. Relating to the earliest days of Bezos, the leader graduated from Princeton University

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Colonialism and imperialism Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Colonialism and imperialism - Assignment Example The Dutch/Scottish Model were Calvinists, who believed in a God-given mission to colonize. They firmly believed that inferior races were not intelligent enough to advance as society. Since these so-called â€Å"inferior races† lacked intellect and were engaged in barbarity, it was deemed necessary to separate and categorize races. A different perspective of colonialism was founded upon the English and the Spanish model. The belief was not to segregate per say, but to convert all humans to be Catholics or Anglicans. The emphasis was based upon assimilation of white traditions rather than implementing economic models in the colonies. Although that was a motive for this model, it was clear that the English and Spaniards were clearly interested in the natural resources that colonies possessed. Modern colonialism can be dated as far the as fifteen-century when the Portugal Empire was in the quest to explore other land. The Portuguese and Spaniards were no doubt interest to establis h their kingdoms overseas in their quest to become imperialistic leaders. Africa seemed a logical place to begin as the American regions were taken by Dutch and British. The British had supreme command of the seas and were being efficient and productive with the technological advances that became catalyst to the industrial age. Mercantile colonialism can be categorized in two distinct eras.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Damage Caused By Oil Spills Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Damage Caused By Oil Spills - Essay Example In terms of property damage, there are certain laws that have been enacted owing to which people can claim for damages caused by the negative approach or negligence. However, individual or business units often deny the claim against a particular damage. This can be apparently seen in the cases of LOVELACE v. FIGURE SALON, INC and NATIONAL CANDY WHOLESALERS, INC. v. CHIPURNOI, INC. In this particular case held in the Court of Appeals of Georgia, the plaintiffs i.e. Marilyn Lovelace and her husband prosecuted a fitness facilities business run by named My Fair Lady. The business provides fitness equipment to its clients with the aim of improving their health and fitness. However, Marilyn Lovelace got injured from the equipment provided by My Fair Lady. The business further denied from entertaining any of the claims of the plaintiff on the ground of the contract signed amid the two parties. The defendant claimed that the contract signed by the plaintiff clearly mentioned that the use of the equipment by the customers for any exercise is entirely at their own risk. Hence, the defendant denied entertaining any claim of the plaintiff on the aforementioned ground (Leagle, Inc. 2014). In this particular case, National Candy Wholesalers, Inc (NCW) had taken a particular space of Atlanta Civic Center for lease. The company further provided a portion of the lease space to manufacturers of candies to showcase their products among which Chipurnoi was also included.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Safety Training Program Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Safety Training Program - Assignment Example The goals will be to educate workers on handling procedures; hazards associated with chemicals, how to read safety, and were they are stored. The Hazard Communication Act or Hazcom was developed after The Right-To-Know Act of 1986. Its goals are to boost employee awareness, evaluate job safety, design safe work procedures, assign personal protective equipment where needed. Employees need to know about this activity so they will not be afraid to speak up and ask questions about their working conditions (Lang 2010). After internship experiences from questions that I asked from employees that worked out in energy plants, I began to realize a lack of training on knowledge of safety for working around chemicals, handling chemicals, and the storage of chemicals. Training is one of the best methods because it gives the employee the knowledge needed to understand the subject. It can also give examples of what can go wrong if they are not handled properly. This will give a great picture of what is expected of them. The employees of any work location that handles any kind of chemicals in their daily work setting. It can even be someone that works with them every day or someone that only handles them once a week. The employees that do not handle any chemicals should have training on the subject as well so they are a clear understanding of safety as well. The delivery I would like to give would be in a multitude of ways. Like classroom time with PowerPoint slides, visual pictures of what can go wrong, in the field training, and some testing to see if the employees were getting the material.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

War on Terrorism and the Effect on Muslim Americans Essay Example for Free

War on Terrorism and the Effect on Muslim Americans Essay The American led war on terrorism has brought numerous concerns among human rights activists across the globe. This is because the war has been perceived as a tool for victimizing and discriminating individuals of the Islamic religion and nationality. Such have been closely attributed to the fact that the American nation blames Al-Qaeda and other Islamic terrorist groups of responsibility in many terror attacks in the world. Due to this reason, members of the Muslim American community are living in constant fear of discrimination, racial profiling and harassment by law enforcement since the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks on the Twin Towers (Elaasar 93). In addition, increased publicity of organized crime group affiliated to the Islamic religion being involved in terrorism has evident discriminative attitude of Muslim Americans by other members of the society. This attitude is worsened by the provisions of the Patriotic Act of 2001 giving the government more power to identify and mitigate terrorism, most of which contradict the constitutional provisions on civil rights in America (Elaasar 93). This has denied Muslim Americans their rights to freedom of movement, privacy and free association. Despite the fact that the American government owes its citizens a duty to security against the disastrous social and economic effects of terrorism, such should not be taken as an excuse for victimizing members of the community simply due to their religion and nationality of origin. This paper identifies and discusses the effects brought by the war on terrorism to members of the Muslim American community. War on terrorism War on terrorism is a concerted effort by nations led by the United States to identify and eliminate members of organized crime groups which are engaged in executing terrorist activities across the globe (Sides and Gross). Although terrorism has for long been a major threat to security in countries particularly the US, the new struggle to combat was triggered by the bloody terrorist attack of the New York-based World Trade Center on September 11th 2001. True from available literature, the war on terrorism involves almost all aspects of sustainable social, security, political, and economic development strategies (Sides and Gross). Such are evident from the American led invasion in both Iraq and Afghanistan which witnessed the overthrowing of leaderships purported to promoting terrorist activities. On the other hand, numerous intelligence efforts have been engaged by respective law enforcement agents across the globe to identify terrorist group cycles and eliminate them. This also serves in enhancing the process of detecting, possible terrorism threats, target, and time of a planed attack to ensure adequate preparedness of the force in preventing and responding to such incidences. In addition, corporation among governments on the fight against terrorism has been on the increase. This has been closely attributed to the fact that terrorism threats are increasingly spreading to unexpected regions. As an emphasis to this claim, numerous attacks have been perpetuated by terrorists groups against their own members. Available information linking terrorist activities to Muslims claim of declaration of western civilization as the number one enemy to the Muslim community by Osama led Al-Qaeda terrorist group. thus, the numerous reported incidences of terrorist attacks in Muslim dominated nations is an indicator of the changing approach of terrorist, thus making every nation potentially vulnerable to terrorist attacks (Sides and Gross). On the other hand, the war on terrorism has taken a new approach as terrorist groups shifts attacks to cyber terrorism. This is one of the mainly purpose of the 2001 Patriotic Act which allows for increased government surveillance over the internet to help identify terror suspects executing crime activities online. The war on terrorism also covers the economic dimensions of the groups across the global society (Maira, and Jamal 12). Just to appreciate is the fact that executing a terrorist attack is highly involving financially. On the other side, available information from intelligence agencies has established that most individuals engaged in implementing terrorist attacks are funded by sponsors of terrorist groups. This has the implication that mitigating free flow of financial support to terrorism group serves an instrumental role in compromising their capacity to threaten security in the security. It is due to this reason why the American government has put in place checks and balances for qualifying the authenticity of transferring huge amount of money to individual (s) across the border. In addition, criminal activities like money laundering are perceived as a potential factor to the success of terrorist groups in the globe. Moreover, reports from the FBI has indicated a close link between organized crime groups in the nation and potential collaboration with terrorist groups to execute terrorists attacks in the US (Maira, and Jamal 27). This report claims that currently the American nation has an estimated over 31,000 organized crime groups spread across its numerous states. It is due to this reason why the American government is strongly involving its resource on the war on drug cartels and other violent organized crime groups. ? Effects of War on Terrorism on Muslim Americans The war on terrorism has many negative implications on the social and economic sustainability of the Muslim American community members. True to the letter, it is no doubt clear that terrorism activities in the western world are closely associated with members of Islamic religion or nationality of origin (Elaasar 20). This can be evident from historical claims which shown a longstanding conflict between Christianity and its western civilization and the Arabic world civilization. This is further complicated by the fact that all major terrorist attacks which have occurred in the world find claims of perpetuation by Islamic oriented terrorist groups. Muslim Americans have become victims of denied constitutional rights following the intensification of the war on terrorism since late 2001. According to available information, law enforcement agents have been granted legal authority to conduct unwarranted search and seizure on based on reasonable suspicion under the anti-terrorist war platform (Malkin 67). It is worthy noting that due to racial profiling by the law enforcement, most victims of terrorism suspicion are from the Islamic community. This has the indication that the war on terrorism has compromised the ability of the Muslim American community members to enjoy their constitutional rights to privacy and warranted search and seizure (Al-Marayati). In addition, the existing laws on terrorism find much contradiction to the provisions of the due process clause of the constitution. Unlike suspects of other crimes who enjoy their right to a legal counsel as well as speedy trail, victims of terrorism suspicion do not. Anti-terrorism laws allow for the putting terrorists suspects in custody for long period before taking them to court (Pew Research Center 35). In addition, the laws allows for deporting of terrorism suspect without giving them opportunity for a court trail. All these contradictions of the constitutional rights against the defendants of terrorism are inhuman, a factor which significantly affect the Muslim Americans for being the main victims of terrorist suspects in the nation. Another effect of the war on terrorism on Muslim Americans is increased social stigmatization and discrimination in the local community. Terrorism threats remain one of the most feared security threats among citizens of the United States. On the other hand, the population has been overwhelmed by the claim that Muslims are the major perpetuators of these dangerous activities. Due to this perception Muslim Americans find limited appreciation by other members in the social and economic fronts of the community (Pew Research Center 49). Such are no doubt a negation of their constitutional right to equal opportunity in the US. This can also be seen as a source of violence and hatred against this minority group. Some opponents of the war on terrorism claim of its effects in compromising commitment of the Muslim believer to effectively practice their religion. The enforcement of anti-terrorism laws in American has limited the ability of the Muslim Americans to engage in charitable works; a crucial religious requirement in the Islamic faith. According to the laws, transferring large sums of money to other nations by Muslims should involve verification from the law enforcement (Shah). Still, these members find much government resistance to engage in organized group contributions to help fellow Muslims in poor nations. It is worth noting that the threat posed on Muslim Americans by the war on terrorism is to be blamed for the reluctance by some members to fully commit to the faith to avoid harassment. Muslim Americans before/after 9/11 vs. Japanese Americans after WWI The relationship between the western and the Middle East has never been without conflict. However, such were not evidently affecting the social and economic aspects of Muslim American until the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks in the US (Maira, and Jamal 26). This was due to the perception brought to the local against the Islamic community given the damage that was caused by the attack. On the other hand, the engagement of the government in intensive efforts to combat terrorism across the global is also to be blamed for worsening the lives of Muslim Americans (Menchik, and Payam). It is worthy appreciating that the war on terrorism has so far only identified members of Islamic community as the cause of threat to the community. Indeed, this relationship current problem facing Muslim Americans can be related to that of Japanese Americans during the WWI. According to historical information, Japan was perceived as a major enemy of the United States following their attack of an American submarine in the peril harbor (Arat 67). The information indicates that this attack was the driving force to America’s entering into the Second World War. Such enmity is no doubt evident from the later use of atomic bombs against the Japanese nation by the Americans during the WWII. Conclusion It has been established that the war on terrorism has negatively affected the Muslim American community. This is because it has led to the formulation and enforcement of laws which are discriminative to suspected or perceived members of terrorist groups. In addition, these laws have led to racial profiling and encouraged arrest of individual based of the principles of guilty by association. All these contradict the fundamental constitutional and universal human rights of terrorist suspects; most of who are Muslims.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Cycle of Abusive Families Essay Example for Free

Cycle of Abusive Families Essay The story of A Thousand Acres written by Jane Smiley is not at all unfamiliar to some American families. While the story tells about the male character representing a negative typical figure of abuse and the female character as the victim of violence and lack of compassion may be fictional in nature, this kind of story also happens in real life (Smiley 12). Love, security, and safety are words commonly used to describe a home. Some people say that home is where the heart is. From the daily grind of life, people seek refuge in the confines of the place they call their own. However, not all homes echo peace and harmony among family members. Not every home becomes a safe place to return to. Not all homes are filled with laughter. Not all homes make one proud. As a child, I get used to playing alone. Within the four corners of my dark bedroom, I have learned to find ways of how to make myself happy as I tried hard to get numb from feeling the bruises on my body and even just for a while forget about terror I get from seeing blood drop out of my skin. Mom said that Dad loves me that is why when he learned that I was not performing academically well in school, he has to hit me to remind me that I had not been a good boy. I believe her. I blame myself for not being able to completely understand my lessons because I cannot concentrate on reviewing while I hear Dad cursing mom in between beatings while mom screams her heart out from the pains she endure. If Dad has to lock me up inside my room, I cannot blame him because it was my fault. If he had to switch the lights off while I have to read my books, I cannot blame him because it was my fault. If he will not allow Mom to bring some food inside my room because I had just been punished for my poor grades, I cannot blame him because it was my fault. Dad punishes me because I deserve it. He does all these things because he loves me. I came to believe that fathers normally act this way because Dad once said that my grandfather does the same things with him when he was my age. Perhaps, children have to go all through this to feel the love their fathers have for them. But I was wrong. Dad has no right to hurt me or Mom. He is a father and a husband, not the enemy. Love is not supposed to be expressed by inflicting harm on the other. Love is not supposed to leave wounds that even time cannot afford to mend. I never had a happy childhood. Now that I am a grown up, I must admit that I am still struggling with the pains that my father has caused me. I know that it takes time. I am also aware, that while I try to leave all the hurtful memories behind, some of the bitterness in my heart will be here to stay. My father has been long gone. He died of colon cancer. Since his demise, Mom and I tried our best to put ourselves and our lives back to pieces. It was utterly hard, but our love for each other helped each of us to live life anew. Neighbors, relatives, and friend also extended their help to us. Coping up entails a long process to recovery. Nonetheless, it was all worth it. Life has not been easy as I used to be hunted by my past. However, my experience has allowed me to extend help to those who find themselves on the same path I used to cross. I devote my time in learning more about domestic violence. In this way, I can cause a change to other people’s lives in my own little way. From my own personal experience, I learned so many things I could not have otherwise known. My life may not be enviable at all but I am so proud to have surfaced from it nonetheless. The things I learned from my own life story are the very same things I want to leave behind when I am gone. I learned that I am entitled to live in a place where I can be safe. I have the right to stay inside a home free from violence of any kind. I am free to commit mistakes. No one has the right to tell me that I am useless. I am supposed to live my life according to my rules following my own decisions. I deserve respect for my intelligence. I am entitled to chase my own dreams. I am supposed to attend to my personal needs as a person. It is unfair for me to remain in a relationship where my personal welfare is in no way considered. It is important for me to discuss my concerns particularly with people whose behavior impairs wellbeing. I am entitled to decide things on my own. While I have the right to express my opinion, I also have the right to withhold them if ever I decide to do so. Fulfilling the needs of people who has inflicted pain on me is not in any way my obligation. Violence in the family is not something new. Perhaps, since time immemorial, family violence has already existed. However, it was only during the modern times, that societies started to acknowledge its existence and regarded it as a social problem. The World Health Organization regarded violence in the family as a global health concern in the year 2002 (Barnett, Perrin, and Perrin 2). It is easy to think of the family as being relatively immune from violence, a place of safe harbor, a place of sustenance and care. The idea that a parent or a spouse would intentionally and knowingly inflict injury on a loved one is counterintuitive. A parent is supposed to protect and care for a child. Spouses are supposed to love and cherish each other. We know, however, that often the family is a source of maltreatment and violence. We read about maltreatment within families in the newspapers, and we see news stories about it on television. Many of us know people who have been abused by family members or we ourselves have been abused, or we have witnessed abuse between our parents. We know family violence exists. Identifying the commonality of violence in the family is a difficult task. Calculating family violence is naturally problematic, primarily since there is a little conformity among those who collect data as to precisely what makes up domestic violence. Regardless of definitional consensus, the fact remains that most domestic violence takes places inside the confines of a home. It is usually concealed, overlooked, or ignored. The U. S. Department of Health and Human Services as well as the Federal Bureau of Investigation finds it hard to accurately identify the statistics of family violence because not all cases are reported for reasons beyond their control (Barnett, Perrin, and Perrin 3). When researchers attempt to deal with the issue of frequency of domestic violence utilizing self-report surveys, the data they collect proves to be unavoidably insufficient. Some victims may find it hard to remember childhood maltreatments and those who are currently suffering from domestic violence may not regard, may choose not to regard, or may be unable to report the abuses they endure at home. In this light, statistics of domestic violence must be treated with caution. Identifying precisely and accurately how much violence exists in the American society seem almost impossible. Violence in the family may appear to be unpredictable, merely a sudden occurrence associated to the moment as well as to the circumstances under which the people concerned find themselves into. As a matter of fact, violence traces a distinctive pattern regardless of the time when it took place or who is involved. The cycle of violence recurs every time the level of the abuser’s violence rises. At each stage in the cycle, the abuser takes full control of his or her actions and tries to manipulate and further isolate the victim. To be able to effectively address the concerns of the abused, it is vital to have a good understand the cycle of violence as well as of how the mind of the abuser works. In this way, the abused recognizes that he or she is not the one at fault. The cycle of violence begins with the set up. It is followed by the act of abuse itself. Afterwards, the abuser suffers from feelings of â€Å"guilt† and revenge. It is then followed by rationalization. The abuser then shifts to a charming behavior. Thereafter, the abuser contemplates on how to carry out the next act of violence on his or her victim. The act of violence can be manifested in various forms. The abuser behaves violently in the intention to show his or her victim who is in control. When the assault has been done, the abuser feels guilty not for his or her actions but for fear of facing the consequences of what he or she has done. This is where the abuser begins to rationalize his or her actions. The abuser does so in order to shift the blame on others. When the abuser starts to complete another plot of abuse, he or she creates a situation wherein justification can be made as to why the assault happened in the first place. Violence in the American society is not at all new. Wars, riots, gangland slayings, political assassinations, or rape cases are different types of violence familiar to Americans. However, surprisingly, the American home is perhaps as or more violent as compared to ay singular American institution. They run the greatest risk of murder, physical injury, or assault inside the confines of their own homes inflicted by their own family members. Across the country this is borne out by official crime statistics. Stories of ill-treated children and maltreated wives are rampant enough to be labeled as â€Å"child abuse† and â€Å"wife abuse. † Approximately millions women and children ill-treated and abused by family members each year are only the tip of the iceberg identified as â€Å"violence between family members† (Straus, Gelles, and Steinmetz 4). Brothers and sisters beat, stab, and shoot each other. There are husbands who are struck and beaten by their wives, and even grandparents are battered by their own children. Violence in one generation affects and encourages violence in another generation. In many families, perhaps a majority of violent families, violence is not even considered taboo or wrong. Rather, it is an accepted and integral part of the way the family functions. Wife abuse and child abuse have captured public attention because of the terms themselves and because they involve terribly violent acts with damaging consequences for the victim. However, â€Å"abuse† is only one extreme end of the continuum of violence in the family, which, for many reasons, never is publicly identified as â€Å"abuse. † Our aim was to study a variety of forms of violence, including some which many people do not consider violent, such as spanking a child. These are some of the frequently asked and most important questions, which unfortunately, we still cannot answer with any certainty. There is no real way of knowing whether families have become more violent in the last decade of the last century. One could use official police, hospital, and social agency statistics to assess changes in the extent of child abuse and wife abuse, but for several reasons these statistics are not suitable for estimating actual levels of violence in the family. First, official statistics compile only the cases of family violence that come to public attention. These are probably only a fraction of the total cases of family violence. Second, official statistics are compiled by organizations and individuals who work in those organizations. These individuals and the units they work in are often influenced by publicity campaigns, public pressure, political pressure, and changes in state and federal law. It was not until 1968 that all fifty states had laws mandating reports of child abuse (Straus, Gelles, and Steinmetz 4). Thus, official statistics compiled by the states before 1968 reflect differences in official legal attitudes toward child abuse and not the true level of abuse in each of the states (Straus, Gelles, and Steinmetz 4). Even today, official statistics vary because each state and each compiler of the statistics in state and local agencies draw on different definitions of child neglect and child abuse. In terms of spouse abuse on the other hand, spouse abuse, few if any agencies have ever bothered to compile statistics on how many wives or husbands batter one another. Although we cannot say definitely whether violence in the American family is on the increase, historical facts argue that family violence certainly is not new and that, probably, we are more violent and perhaps a little less violent toward our own families than were our ancestors. Abused women are found in all socioeconomic levels, all educational, and all racial groups (Finkelhor 29). The abused woman has a martyr-like behavior. She is often a long sufferer and overloaded with the demands of others. The abused woman finds it difficult to nurture herself and she feels unappreciated. The abused woman is often employed but is not allowed control of any finances (Finkelhor 29). She does not know how to deal with stress. She can have anxiety attacks. Usually, this type of woman will feel tired and overworked. She does not provide enough space in her life for breaks. Poor management of time and resources are quite apparent. It is hard for the abused to make life changes. Problem solving is very stressful. The abused accepts responsibility for the batterer’s behavior. The battered woman is isolated and loses contact with her family or friends. She often feels embarrassed about her situation. This type of woman is further isolated because her partner does not want her to give time to friends, neighbors, relatives, or outside activities. He wants all the attention himself. The abused suffers from guilt. He or she may feel that he or she deserves to be beaten for failing to live up to the expectations of the abuser. An abused woman is a traditionalist about her role in the home. She strongly believes in family unity and has traditional expectations of her husband or as the provider. This type of woman wants to keep the image of a socially or religiously acceptable marriage. The abused has a low self-esteem and does not feel that he or she has much value. The abused is extremely critical of his or herself and usually of others. He or she does not have a high level of self-preservation. The abused accepts violence in the hope that someday the abused violence the abuser will eventually change. The abused believes that he or she caused the anger and violence. The abused woman usually loves her husband and wants to trust his promises that he will reform, although it rarely happens. The abused could have been emotionally neglected as a child. He or she could have been physically and/or sexually abused as a child or saw violence in his or her family. He or she could have been abused by a sibling, parent, or a relative. It is difficult for the abused to verbalize her needs and desires to others. He or she has poor communication skills and has difficulty in being able to express his or her anger. The abused woman has poor communication skills and has difficulty in being able to express her anger. Since the abused woman is unassertive, she can be quite manipulative. She is skilled in the art of complaining. However, her complaints are usually not listened to or resolved by her partner. The abused is usually in denial. He or she will not admit to his or herself that he or she has been physically, emotionally, or sexually abused. The abused may think of each incident as an accident. He or she often gives excuses for the abuser’s violence. The abused usually rationalizes the incident. The abused woman is usually taught from her childhood to defer power to a male. Much of the time she feels helpless and will look for someone to help her put her life together. She does not want to take responsibility for making decisions and would rather have someone else make them. Many abused women feel comfortable in taking a complaint position (Finkelhor 29). She has been brought up to believe that women are weak, inferior, and should submit to men in return for financial support. The abused is often depressed. He or she can try to make his or herself less depressed by overdoing things. The abused my turn out to be alcoholic, may overeat, may over exhaust his or herself from work, to name a few. He or she may even contemplate on suicide to end his or her difficult life. Although parents’ use of violence on children certainly is not new, the addition of the term child abuse to our vocabulary has come about only recently. Child abuse typically refers to acts committed by parents on their children that other members of the society view as inappropriate and harmful. Thus, child abuse depends on historically and culturally relative judgments for its meaning. All families have tensions, and all families sometimes resolve these tensions in inappropriate ways. Even the best parents and the most loving couples sometimes lose their tempers, say intentionally hurting things to one another, raise their voices when arguing, and even lash out at loved ones physically. Many structural factors make families particularly prone to violence. One of these is the amount of time family members spend together, which increases the opportunity for violence. Another factor is that family interactions are often emotional, and so especially volatile. In addition, power differential often exists among family members. Children are subordinate to parents, elderly parents are subordinate to their adult children, and wives may be subordinate to husbands. The result is that the powerless sometimes become targets of aggression. Further complicating matter is the fact that children, and to some degree, women as well cannot fight back. Nor can they always choose with whom they will or will not interact. Whereas many interpersonal conflicts can be resolve simply through the dissolution of relationships, family relationships are protected by law and are not so easily severed. Wives can easily feel trapped by the cultural, legal, and economic constraints of marriage. Children are dependent on their parents. Even when child maltreatment comes to the attention of authorities, states are reluctant to break up families and parents are often given every opportunity to change. Everyone involved with spousal abuse seems to have feelings of guilt and frustration that manifest themselves as denial or in a pessimistic outlook. Either they cannot do anything about it so they might as well ignore it, or they cannot do anything about it by they will pretend they can until someone comes up with a better idea. It appears they are embarrassed by their failure or their perception of failure and so use defense mechanisms to protect themselves from it. Perhaps, this explains the general reluctance to talk about the problem at all, to anyone. Some believe that family members can be expected to lose control from time to time, that parents and spouses sometimes need to â€Å"blow off steam. † They may rationalize that a man who hits his wife is not really violent – he just had a bad day at work and lost his temper. Or they many rationalize that a woman is generally a good mother, but her kids were really acting up and she only hit them because she lost control temporarily. Some people believe that such actions are inevitable – even natural – and are hardly worthy of serious societal reaction. The ludicrous nature of the â€Å"it just happens† justification becomes clear, however, when one recognizes that stranger violence is not so easily dismissed. When one stranger assaults another, we do not allow the assailant to dismiss his actions as a momentary loss of control, a need to blow off steam, or a reaction to a bad day at work. Nor do we allow the assailant to blame the victim. We are appropriately intolerant of stranger violence. Violence within the family increasingly is identified as profound societal problems that can exert a multitude of short and long term effects on young people and can take a variety of forms including abuse perpetrated by parents or siblings. Victims of violence are survivors, and they find various ways to help themselves endure the violence until they are able to leave the relationship. The coping strategies they work out enable them to put their feelings on hold so they can deal with the day-to-day challenges of a violent and dangerous life. The most common coping strategy abused people do is denial. Denial enables them to live with what is happening and to avoid feelings of terror and humiliation. Denial can be counterproductive, as they may cause the victim to deny the seriousness of the problem. Anger enables the victim to take strong action in an emergency. Nightmares provide a way to experience strong feelings of fear, anger, panic, and shame the abused may not be able to share with anyone else or even allow him or herself to feel. The emotional impact on children who witness domestic violence done to other people can be significant, particularly when their parents or recognized authority are the ones involved. Moreover, the emotional impact on children is also great when the violence takes places inside the home where children are supposed to be kept away from harm. When children find themselves in a hopeless situation, they can also be harmed regardless of whether or not they are the ones directly abused in the situation (Helfer, Kempe, and Krugman 3). Many times, the effects of domestic violence are intensified when the children think they can no longer expect support coming from their parents or caregivers. They likewise struggle with feelings of fault and guilt. It is crucial to acknowledge that the impact on the child bearing witness to domestic violence can be controlled by a several factors, such as support from concerned adults as well as effective treatment to address their problems. In the vast majority of families, women are the primary caretakers of children. Therefore, the battering of mothers affects children in myriad of ways. Children who witness violence against their mothers are at considerable risk physically, psychologically, and emotionally. These children face two fold threats. One of which is the threat of physical abuse. The other is the threat of bearing witness to a traumatic incident happening inside their home. Children living inside a violent home are also at risk of being harmed. They may be traumatized witnessing their mother being attacked while both of them are left without aid. Consequently, these children may lay the blame on themselves for not being able to do something about the problem. Furthermore, these children may be abused or neglected themselves. Women who have been battered repeatedly are sometimes unable to respond psychologically to their children. They may display the following behaviors: unresponsiveness to the child’s emotional needs, passive rejection of the child, detachment or lack of involvement with the child, interaction with the child only when necessary, no display of pleasure when interacting with the child, lack of positive response to the child’s attempts to elicit interaction, poor ability to comfort the child at times of distress, no sharing in the positive experience of the child, withdrawn affect, no display of emotion, or depression, and an inability to derive pleasure or satisfaction from a relationship with the child (Wilson 32). Children living inside violent homes may be indirectly harmed themselves. These children may be struck by thrown objects or weapons. Babies may suffer injuries in the event that the mother is holding the baby at a time the assault takes place. In other cases, children may receive injuries while they try to protect their mother from harm. Many fathers unintentionally inflict harm on their children while throwing objects while assaulting their wives. The care, affection, and love they deserve are not given to children living inside violent homes. The trust of an abused child towards a violent parent is impaired in the process. Moreover, violence toward a child by a parent often serves to disrupt the development of child-parent attachment. The aggressive family tends to live in an environment that fails to provide the children with appropriate opportunities for or models of socialization or bonding. It is not surprising that children who are victims of family violence often have impaired social relations. Children have been subjected to differing types of maltreatment throughout history, and these atrocities are well documented (Utech 37). For centuries, society has condoned infanticide, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and the exploitation of children’s labor. The prevalence of child maltreatment has endured throughout time and has cultivated tenacious legacies that have shaped societal response to child abuse. Those legacies include the tenet that children are the property of their parents – and expandable as well. These traditions contributed to the slow societal response n defining and responding to child abuse. In addition, society has suffered from a denial of the problem’s existence and prevalence. Child abuse is a complex, disturbing concern that, even though prevalent in underprivileged families, crosses all sectors of society (Helfer, Kempe, and Krugman 3). The human as well as fiscal costs of abuse in America are huge. It is highly possible that billions of dollars are used in social service and treatment costs and lost in reduced productivity for a generation of abused children. The human costs on the other hand fill a long list of psychological disorders. The emotional damage due to maltreatment may last a lifetime. Works Cited Barnett, Ola W. , Cindy Lou Miller-Perrin, and Robin D. Perrin. Family Violence Across the Lifespan: An Introduction. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE, 2005. Finkelhor, David. The Dark Side of Families: Current Family Violence Research. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE, 1983. Helfer, Mary Edna, Ruth S. Kempe, and Richard D. Krugman. The Battered Child. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,1999. Smiley, Jane. A Thousand Acres. London: HarperPerennial, 2008. Straus, Murray Arnold, Richard J. Gelles, and Suzanne K. Steinmetz. Behind Closed Doors: Violence in the American Family. Piscataway, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 2006. Utech, Myron. Violence, Abuse and Neglect. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman Altamira, 1993. Wilson, K. J. When Violence Begins at Home: A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding and Ending Domestic Abuse. Alameda, California: Hunter

Friday, September 20, 2019

The Effects Of Climate Change On Cambodia Environmental Sciences Essay

The Effects Of Climate Change On Cambodia Environmental Sciences Essay The world climate is always changing through a natural sequence, and it grows up quickly due to the human activities which make the world worry about. As we all know that humans depend on a sustainable and healthy environment, and yet we have damaged the environment in numerous ways which lead the climate change and global warming occur. So, what is climate change and global warming? The climate change is an adjustment in the average weather for years. Usually, when we speak of climate change on a global scale, we are referring to changes in the climate of the Earth as a whole. Whereas, global warming is the growth up of the average temperature of the Earths surface. Although, the world climate and global warming are often used interchangeably, the NASA website has given the definition of these two terms that global warming refers to surface temperature increases, while climate change includes global warming and everything else that increasing greenhouse gases amounts will affect. For instance, if we look back to the 18 centuries till now, we can many homes, factories, and transportations increase dramatically. Those places are the main places where more coal and oil are burning; then those release greenhouse gases such as CO2, SO2 to the atmosphere, which cause the earth to warm quickly. Moreover, since the late 1800s, the global average temperature has increase d about 0.7 to 1.4 degrees F (0.4 to 0.8 degrees C). Many experts estimate that the average temperature will rise an additional 2.5 to 10.4 degrees F (1.4 to 5.8 degrees C) by 2100. This can happen due to the increase in total amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere which trap infrared radiation from the earth. Causes and Effects of Climate Change to the World There are two main causes of climate changes and global warming-natural and human activities. First, it is caused by natural activities like continental drift and volcanoes. Million of years back, the continental that we live today is the formed of a gradually drifting apart of landmass that changed the physical feature of the landmass, and the position of water bodies. For example, the Indian landmass is thronging towards the Asian landmass slowly, but steadily due to the increase by 1mm of Himalayan range. Moreover, the large amount of SO2, water vapor, dust, and ash were thrown out when the volcanic eruption occurred. Those gases have serious effect to the atmosphere. For instance, so2 combined with water, it produces the acid rain which causes trees to fall their leaves, land erosion, and make the color of buildings become lighter. Second, climate change is caused by human activities. If we look back the industrial revolution in 19th century, we can see more industrial grow and the large scale of car increase nowadays. People also continue to burn more fossil fuel in their everyday activities like using modern transportation, create more factories and for household use. Burning fossil fuel, it release greenhouse gases to the atmosphere which cause to earth to warm quickly. Those causes produce most serious impact to the word today as it increases of the global temperature. When the temperature increase, arctic sea ice, glaciers and permafrost are melt; therefore, the sea level is also rise. Therefore, the lowland area like Newzaland will go to flood and it will destroy the habitat of animals. Moreover, higher temperature will cause the world drought so that people and some animals may die or move to the cooler places. In addition, warmer temperature also has bad effect to human health. People will have more allergies due to heat waves and the effect of direct ultraviolet from the sun. More animals that carry disease like mosquitoes are also growth more quickly. The Effects of Climate Change and Global Warming on Cambodia as a Nation Climate change and global warming affect Cambodia in several ways. First, it causes flood and drought. Flood and draught are two main extreme climate events and occur every year in a number of provinces such as Stung Treng, Kratie, Kampong Cham, Kandal, Kampong Thom, Kampong Chhanang, Battambang, Siem Reap, Prey Veng, Svay Rieng, and Takeo. Severe floods have resulted in a high number of casualties and destruction of infrastructures. For example, the recent flood caused by Ketsana at this end of September and early October 2010 caused 43 deaths and USD132 million of GDP loss due to the destruction of production sector, infrastructures, and social sector USD132 million, 19% of GDP loss in , and 33% of GDP loss in social sector. Besides, drought in Cambodia causes Mekong has low water levels which harm to people around 60 million who live along the Mekong River. For instance, the most severe drought, which subsequently occurred in 2002, affected more than 2 million people and destroyed more than 100,000 ha of paddy fields (Analysis of Policies to Address Climate Change Impacts in Cambodia by Ministry of Environment, March 2005). Second, it causes typhoons which strike the Cambodian coastline every 2 to 5 years and normally occur at the end of the rainy season. In November 1997, Typhoon Linda hit the Gulf of Thailand. At that time, the wind spread in Sihanouk reached 60m/s. Over five days, approximately 400mm of rainfall was recorded in coastal areas. It destroyed 81 fishing boats, claiming some 100 victims and most of the paddy fields of the Sihanoukville area (MoE, 1998). Third, climate change and global warming affect to Cambodian health especially the rural people. Those have high risk in facing to the disease such as dengue fever, typhoid and diarrhea. According to the Cambodia Ministry of Health (MoH) in 2004, it stated that Cambodia already has the highest malaria fatality rate within Southeast Asia, and 500 deaths per year. It was predicted by MoH that the changing of climate will increase the numbers of Malaria by 16%. How Cambodia Respond to the Effect of Climate Change and Global Warming Cambodia is a small a country that got impact form climate change and global warming as I have mentioned in the previous MC. The below are the response of Cambodia include individual, state, and international level to climate change and global warming. As individuals, we play a vital role in helping to protect our environment by trying to reduce the green house gases that emit from our everyday life. People can use bicycles to travel or walk from place to another instead of using cars or buses which burn fossil fuels that effect to our environment. Moreover, we can use some methods of recycle and reuse for some products in order to cut down the emission of CFCs into the atmosphere and then slow down the process of increasing our global climate which will deplete the ozone layer. Nowadays, we got a modern technology so that factories can use those techniques to apply in their factory to reduce pollution and destruction to the environment. Individuals alone cannot make an effect way to deal with the climate change and global warming. State also plays an important role to respond to the effect of climate change. As we can that Cambodia is the most vulnerable to the effect of climate change due to our economy depends mainly on agriculture. Due to 80 percent of Cambodian people are farmers and they facing severe drought and flood which cause serious problems to their rice yield, the government of Cambodia introduced some new techniques to them. In order to adapt to the climate change, he suggested some methods consist of changing the way of farming by telling them to chose the right seed, practicing rice growth techniques, promoting multi purpose of farming, and requesting them to do research for new techniques. Moreover, he can make a decision and enforce the environmental law such as not to cut down the tree, and set the maximum of emission of GHGs for each industries. In addition to the state actions, it has to cooperate with international level in order to get an effective to cope with climate change. For example, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the 3rd Conference of the Parties (COP-3), held in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997. It commits 39 developing countries to reduce their GHG emissions of about 5% below their 1990 levels during the period between 2008 and 2012. Moreover, Cambodian Climate Change Alliance (CCCA) funded by Climate Change Trust Fund of 8.9 million US dollars from European Union, UNDP, SIDA, and DANIDA to cover the period 2010-2012 in the aim of supporting the integration of climate change. Taking everything into account, we can make a conclusion that climate change and global warming is a hot issue that the world is worry about and it is really related to the global governance that we have learn for a semester. The reason is that climate change has no boundaries. For example, the forest fires in Sumatra Island which located nearby Singapore and Malaysia caused a serious haze to Southeast Asia by polluting the atmosphere. When it happens, it will destroy our hold economy, infrastructures, and our health; Cambodia is an example. To deal with those problems, we have to take time and spend more money by stating from ourselves to international level. However, I can pinpoint the challenge in this topic that the government may get difficulties in dealing with the climate change in the case of air pollution. As Cambodia is a developing country, we have to think and build up our economics first. Therefore, we have to lure the investors to invest our country. In this case, industries will grow so it leads to increase the emission of CO2, CFCs which cause more pollution to the atmosphere. Moreover, I think our government still not yet gets successful in helping the farmers to cope with climate change although he introduced some new techniques to them. As more than 80 percents of Cambodian people are farmers, not all of them get support from the government. Global government plays an important role in responding to this issue. As we can see that in 1988, the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to provide a credible assessment of the state of scientific knowledge on global warming. Moreover, Untied Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) adopted in 1992 which consists of 194 countries to address global climate change. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is created to allow developed countries to meet part of their reduction obligations through projects in developing countries that reduce emissions or sequester CO2 from the atmosphere.