Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Baz Luhrmans Film Romeo and Juliet In the film Romeo and Juliet, Baz Luhrman said that he was trying to recreate the impact of the original Elizabethan production for a modern mass audience. I am trying to find out the challenges he faced and how he solved them and say how successful he was in making the script work for a modern audience. The problems faced by a modern director of Romeo and Juliet Shakespeares original audience and theatre and the style and drama Shakespeares original audience was made up of the whole social range. At one end of the social scale were the working people. These were known as the groundlings because they were poor. They paid less and so they had toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The big writing I mentioned are important phrases picked out from the prologue such as two star crossed lovers take their life. The beginning of the film had a fast and furious opening which made it more dramatic. The beginning is set at a petrol station which tells us it is modern. I think that because the language was introduced to us in this way anyone can watch it and gradually will be able to understand the language. Modern attitudes to Shakespeare: Theatre cinema audiences compared. In the theatre people used to think it is a rowdy day out. Going to the theatre wasnt very comfortable in those days because a lot of people had to stand the whole way through the play, and wouldnt have been able to sit quietly and watch the play like we do in cinemas. People didnt take plays to seriously and would have talked through the play and even sometimes shouted at the actors. With a play like Romeo and Juliet there could have been audience participation too. People might have hissed at Tybalt, or cheered or laughed when Romeo kisses Juliet because even Juliet was played by men too. The actors would have talked through the play about somethingShow MoreRelatedThe Opening of Baz Luhrmans Film Version of Romeo and Juliet2032 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Opening of Baz Luhrmans Film Version of Romeo and Juliet Franco ZeffirelliÃ¢â¬â¢s 1969 version of Ã¢â¬ËRomeo and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢ was actually filmed on location in Verona and is set in the 15th century, when the story of Romeo and Juliet was meant to happen. Its opening prologue is very plain and simple, there are just two long shots and the voiceovers voice speaks very slowly. The first shot is a long shot of medieval Verona on a misty morning, the camera pans around to the riverRead MoreComparison Between Act 3 Scene 1 in Franco Zeferellis Romeo and Juliet and in Baz Luhrmans Romeo and Juliet621 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesZeferellis Romeo and Juliet and in Baz Luhrmans Romeo and Juliet I am going to compare the two pieces of Romeo and Juliet, Act 3 Scene 1 that I have been studying for the past few weeks. I have been looking at; Camera shots, setting, special effects, moods, costumes, characters, etc. These things are severely thought of by the director before and during the making of the film. I have been looking at Baz Luhrmans Romeo and Juliet and Franco Zeferellis Romeo and JulietRead MoreEssay about Film Retellings of Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet1104 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswill compare and contrast Ã¢â¬Å"Romeo and JulietÃ¢â¬ by William Shakespeare. Romeo and Juliet is one of William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s most famous works. I will compare and contrast the 1968 film by Franco Zefferilli and 1996 Baz LuhrmanÃ¢â¬â¢s film. It has been adapted into screenplays, and remade countless times. Baz LuhrmanÃ¢â¬â¢s and William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s versions of Romeo and Juliet are similar in theme, but are different in setting, mood, and character personalities. The character of Romeo is a lovesick man who keepsRead MoreDeathÃ¢â¬â¢S Kiss:A Film Analysis Of Baz LuhrmanÃ¢â¬â¢S Romeo And1236 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDeathÃ¢â¬â¢s Kiss: A Film Analysis of Baz LuhrmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Romeo and Juliet Through history, dozens of renditions of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s classic tragedy Romeo and Juliet have been created by dozens of different directors, each with a unique twist on the playÃ¢â¬â¢s famous storyline. Baz Luhrmann provided an interesting angle to the story of Romeo and Juliet, choosing to depict it in the modern era rather than in early modern Verona. LuhrmannÃ¢â¬â¢s rendition of a particularly famous scene, the first kiss shared between theRead MoreComparing Zeffirelli and Luhrmanns Versions of Romeo and Juliet930 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFor never was a story of more woe Than this of Juliet and her Romeo. - William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, 5.3 Ã¢â¬ËRomeo and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢ is a tragic play about two star crossed lovers written by Shakespeare in 1595. The play is a timeless teenage tradgedy. Ã¢â¬Å"The play champions the 16th Century belief that true love always strikes at first sight,Ã¢â¬ (Lamb 1993: Introduction) and even in modern times an audience still want to believe in such a thing as love at first sight. Act II Scene II the balconyRead More Baz LuhrmanÃ ´s Version of Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet Essay834 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBaz LuhrmanÃ ´s Version of Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet One of the characteristics of Elizabethan and also Jacobean drama is the low number of stage directions and the lack of details they contain. As a logical consequence theatrical representations or film versions of these ages may allow an important quantity of freedom in the performance. In other instances stage directions and other important theatrical elements are consciously left aside in order to create totally different visions ofRead MoreBaz Luhrmans Moulin Rouge Essay495 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesBaz Luhrmans Moulin Rouge Moulin Rouge was Baz LuhrmanÃ¢â¬â¢s next great success after his polarizing fusion of Shakespearean dialogue and MTV stylisations that was William Shakespeares Romeo + Juliet. Released in 2001 Moulin Rouge caused considerableRead MoreComparing Zefferellis Production of Romeo and Juliet with Luhrman Production859 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesZefferellis Production of Romeo and Juliet with Luhrman Production In this essay I am going to write how the production of Romeo In Franco Zeffirellis production of Romeo and Juliet, the setting and language are of a traditional, realistic nature. This is in complete contrast to Baz Luhrmans production, with the exception of the language used in both productions. Zefferellis production however is far more effective, as he has tried to keep the film close to the originalRead MoreWilliam Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet Essay1768 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesShakespeares Romeo and Juliet Although William Shakespeare wrote the story of Ã¢â¬ËRomeo and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢ in the 1500s, the themes depicted in the play had been around for centuries. It was a classic tragic love story. William Shakespeare needed his story to appeal and be accessible to as many people as possible. The main problem was that many people at the time could not read, therefore producing a book was pointless. So he decided to write the story of Ã¢â¬ËRomeo and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢ as a playRead MoreA Comparison of the Two Film Versions of Romeo and Juliet1789 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesA Comparison of the Two Film Versions of Romeo and Juliet I have been studying the prologue to Romeo and Juliet written by the magnificent playwright, William Shakespeare sometime between 1594 and 1596. Still globally acknowledged
Monday, December 16, 2019
Types of Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth DOI:10. 1093/acprof:oso/9780199596515. 003. We will write a custom essay sample on Types of Entrepreneurship or any similar topic only for you Order Now 0004 Abstract and Keywords This chapter is an empirical exploration of types of entrepreneurship and their impact on economic growth in developing and transition countries. It relates indicators of entrepreneurship to average rates of economic growth in the period 2002Ã¢â¬â5. For this the chapter utilizes a dataset on entrepreneurship in thirty? six countries from the Global Enterprise Monitor (GEM), collected in 2002. It finds that indicators of young business activity have a significant impact on growth in high? income countries and transition countries, but not in developing countries. The chapter explains the lack of significant effects in developing countries by pointing to the lack of complementary physical and human capital and the scarcity of larger companies that can act as a training ground for SMEs. Keywords:Ã Ã Ã entrepreneurship,Ã growth? oriented entrepreneurship,Ã economic growth,Ã global entrepreneurship monitor 4. 1Ã Introduction Entrepreneurship has long been considered a crucial mechanism of economic development (SchumpeterÃ 1934; LandesÃ 1998). However, empirical studies on the role of entrepreneurship in economic growth show mixed evidence (StamÃ 2008). This is not remarkable because there is much heterogeneity in both the kinds of entrepreneurship and the kinds of economic contexts in which economic growth takes place. Until now studies have not sufficiently accounted for this heterogeneity on the micro- and macro-level, which limits our insight into the contingent role of entrepreneurship in economic growth. Important questions in this respect are: Ã¢â¬ËHow does the role of entrepreneurship differ between high-income, transition, and medium-income countries? Ã¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬ËWhat kinds of entrepreneurship are most crucial for economic growth? Ã¢â¬â¢. The objective of this chapter is to provide insights into the role of different types of entrepreneurship in economic growth, and on how this role differs in poor and rich economies. In this chapter, we empirically investigate the effect of entrepreneurship on economic growth at the country-level. We use data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), which provides comparative data on entrepreneurship from a wide range of countries. An important element of this chapter is that we compare the effects of entrepreneurial activity on economic growth in high-income countries, transition countries (China, Hungary, Poland, Russia, and Slovenia), and medium-income countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, India, Mexico, South Africa, and Thailand). This dataset also enables us to make a distinction between the effects of entrepreneurship in general andÃ (p. 9 )growth-oriented entrepreneurship in particular. We present empirical tests of the impact of entrepreneurial activity on GDP growth over a four-year period for a sample of 36 countries. Our empirical analyses suggest that entrepreneurship does not have an effect on economic growth in medium-income countries, in contrast to transition and high-income countries where especially growth-oriented entrepreneurship seems to contribut e strongly to macroeconomic growth. 4. 2Ã Entrepreneurship and economic development Development is a broad concept entailing the raising of human capabilities (SenÃ 1999). One of the central challenges in improving economic development is to increase the standards of living for individuals and growth of the economy as a whole. Even though economic growth in itself is a rather narrow target, it is probably one of the most important targets for development policies. It is also one of the measures that is most easy to access for analysts, and probably the best measure to make cross-national (BarroÃ 1991; Sala-i-MartinÃ 1997) and historical (MaddisonÃ 2001) analyses of the development of economies. Traditionally the economic output of a country is seen as a function of capital and labour inputs, combined with technical change (SolowÃ 1957). Of course, conflicts and wars might interrupt this function (Sala-i-MartinÃ 1997), but these are Ã¢â¬ËjustÃ¢â¬â¢ contingencies. The standard production function used shows that economic output (Y) is a function of the sum of labour and capital inputs, and the level of technological knowledge (i. e. productivity). This means that economic growthÃ¢â¬âthe growth of economic outputÃ¢â¬âis a function of the growth of labour and capital inputs and technological progress. In traditional models of economic growth investment in capital, labour, and technology is sufficient to realize economic growth. New models of economic growth see these investments as a necessary complement to entrepreneurship/innovation, but not as a sufficient explanation for economic growth in its own right (Nelson and PackÃ 1999). One could even argue that high rates of investment in human and physical capital are themselves stimulated by effective innovation, and cannot be maintained in the absence of innovation. Recent studies emphasize entrepreneurship as a driver of economic development and some authors include entrepreneurship as a fourth production factor in the macroeconomic production function (Audretsch and KeilbachÃ 2004). Entrepreneurship is the factor that creates wealth by combining existing production factors in new ways. Entrepreneurs experiment with new combinations of which the outcomes are uncertain, but in order to make progress, many new variations have to be tried in order to find out which ones willÃ (p. 80 )Ã improve (economic) life (Rosenberg and BirdzellÃ 1986). Other authors have argued that entrepreneurship will only unlock economic development if a proper institutional setting is in place (BaumolÃ 1990; Boettke and CoyneÃ 2003; PowellÃ 2008). This institutional setting comprises informal as well as formal institutions (NorthÃ 1990). An essential formal institution for welfare enhancing entrepreneurship is property rights. Insecure property rights have been an important constraint on the investments by entrepreneurs in transition countries, even more so than capital market constraints (Johnson, McMillan, and WoodruffÃ 2000). A specific example regarding property rights is the fact that until 1988 private firms with more than seven workers were not even allowed to operate legally in China (DornÃ 2008). One might say that the production factors capital, labour, technology, and entrepreneurship are the proximate causes of economic development, while institutions are a fundamental cause of economic development (Acemoglu, Johnson, and RobinsonÃ 2004). Next to productivity growth and technological change in established sectors, the development process in less advanced countries is largely about structural change (Gries and NaudeÃ 2010; Nelson and Pack1999; RodrikÃ 2007). It is a process in which an economy finds outÃ¢â¬âself-discoversÃ¢â¬âwhat it can be good at producing, out of the many products that already exist. The role of entrepreneurs in developing countries does not equal innovation and RD as commonly understood in advanced economies. Their role is to discover that a certain good, already well-established in world markets, can be produced at home at low cost (Hausmann and RodrikÃ 2003; RodrikÃ 2007). Ã Examples of this are the entrepreneurs that figured out that Bangladesh was good in the production of T-shirts, Colombia in cut flowers, India in software services, and Taiwan in bicycles and display technologies. Even if entrepreneurs cannot appropriate all these gains for themselves, their discoveries generate large social gains for their economies. Spurring entrepreneurs to invest in their home economy is said to be one of the most important aspects of stimulating growth in poor countries (RodrikÃ 2007). Investing refers here t o innovation (e. g. mploying new technology, producing new products, searching for new markets) and expanding capacity. These investments trigger the combination of capital investment and technological change. In advanced capitalist economies, innovation and structural change take place through the combined efforts of small (independent inventors) and large innovative (organized RD) firms, which complement each other in changing the economy (NooteboomÃ 1994; BaumolÃ 2002). In developing countries the role of large firms is relatively small (Ghoshal, Hahn, and MoranÃ 1999). In transition countries there are relatively many large organizations but these are largely in a process of restructuring and dismantling. This means thatÃ (p. 81 )Ã small firms will be the prime movers in the process of structural change in developing and transition economies. We expect that the level of growth-oriented entrepreneurship in a country is a more relevant driver of economic growth than the mostly used indicators of entrepreneurship like self-employment and new firm formation. In contrast to rich countries, entrepreneurship in medium-income countries is mainly driven by necessity (Bosma et al. 2008). 2Ã Most entrepreneurs in these economies do not start a firm because they desire independence or because they want to increase their income as compared to being an employee, which are the dominant motives in rich countries. Most new businesses in medium-income countries are started out of necessity, in contrast to high-income countries, where entrepreneurship is most often opportunity-driven. This is reflected in the finding that in poor countries self-employed persons are less happy than employees, while the reverse is true in high-income countries (Blanchflower and OswaldÃ 1998; GrahamÃ 2005). Entrepreneurs in medium-income countries most often start a business because they have no other way of earning a living. These entrepreneurs are not likely to be involved in a process of self-discovery; their actions are not likely to have an effect on the restructuring and diversification of the poor economies (RodrikÃ 2007). . 3Ã Data and research methods It is generally acknowledged that there are differences in the distribution of entrepreneurship across countries. Studies exploring differences in entrepreneurship across countries often focus on the incidence of new firm registration or self-employment, which may not be reliable indicators when applied to transition and developing countries with significant informal economies and fewer alternatives to self-employment. For these reasons we have used the Young Business (YB) indicator, defined as the percentage of adult population that is the owner/manager of a business that is less than 42 months old. Many studies have used the total entrepreneurial activity index, but that also includes the more speculative category of nascent entrepreneurs (individuals preparing a new business). In the current study we investigate whether the presence of growth-oriented entrepreneurs is a more important determinant of national economic growth than entrepreneurial activity in general. We will perform regression analyses with the YBÃ high-growth expectationÃ rate and the YBÃ medium-growth expectationÃ rate as independent variables and compare their impact on economic growth with the impact of the general YB index. The data and model used in this study are described below. We use a sample of 36 countries participating in the GEM in 2002. Data on six basic variables are used in our model: YB rate, YB medium-growth, YBÃ (p. 82 )Ã high-growth, growth of GDP, per capita income, and the growth competitiveness index (GCI). YB index YB is defined as the percentage of adult population that is owner/manager of a business that is less than 42 months old. The YB high-(medium) growth expectation rate is defined as the percentage of adult population that is owner/manager of a business that is less than 42 months old,Ã and expects to employ 20 (six) employees or more within five yearsÃ (YB6 and YB20). The YB medium-growth rate has some similarity to the entrepreneurship indicator used by Djankov et al. (2006), which includes owner-managers of a business with five or more employees. Data on the YB rate are taken from the GEM Adult Population Survey for 2002. Growth of GDP (? GDP) (Real) GDP growth rates are taken from the IMF World Economic Outlook database of the International Monetary Fund from September 2005. In equations (1) and (2) below variable ? GDPitÃ refers to the period 2002Ã¢â¬â5 (average annual growth) while the lagged GDP growth variable (? GDPi,t-1) refers to the period 1998Ã¢â¬â2001. Per capita income (GNIC) Most studies on GDP growth include the initial level of income in their analysis and find it to be significant (the conditional convergence effect, cf. AbramovitzÃ 1986). Gross national income per capita 2001 is expressed in (thousands of) PPP dollars. These data are taken from the 2002 World Development Indicators database of the World Bank. Growth Competitiveness Index (GCI) In order to cover some aspects of the state of technology and institutions in a country (see SectionÃ 4. 2) we used the GCI for the year 2001 of the World Economic Forum (see McArthur and SachsÃ 2002). Given the low number of observations we are forced to use a combined index in our model. Even though there are huge problems in measuring technological capabilities and institutions (see Lall2001), the composite GCI is probably the best combined index available that covers these two factors simultaneously. p. 83 )Ã We investigate whether (growth-oriented) entrepreneurship may be considered as a determinant of economic growth, alongside the well-known determinants technology, institutions, and the macroeconomic environment, which are captured by the GCI. As both entrepreneurship and the factors underlying the GCI are assumed to be structural characteristic s of an economy, we do not want to explain short-term economic growth but rather growth in the medium-term. Therefore we choose average annual growth over a period of four years (2002Ã¢â¬â5) as the dependent variable in this study. Following van Stel, Carree, and Thurik (2005), we use (the log of) initial income-level of countries to correct for catch-up effects, and lagged growth of GDP to correct for reversed causality effects, as additional control variables. 3 We allow for the possibility of different effects for high-income, transition, and medium-income countries. In addition we also test whether the effect of YB is different for transition countries. 4Ã YB rates may reflect different types of entrepreneurs in countries with different development levels, implying different impacts on growth. This is tested by defining separate YB variables for different groups of countries (high-income, transition, and medium-income countries). Our model is represented by equations (1) and (2). These equations are estimated separately by ordinary least squares. The expectation that growth-oriented YBs contribute more to national economic growth than YBs in general corresponds to b2Ã (c2) being larger than b1Ã (c1). In these equations sub-scripts t and t-1 loosely indicate that the independent variables are measured prior to the dependent variable. The exact years and periods for which the variables are measured can be found in the variable description above. ?GDPit=a+b1YBrichi,t? 1+c1YBtransitioni,t? 1+d1YBpoori,t? 1 +e? log(GNICi,t? 1)+f? GCIi,t? 1+g GDPi,t? 1+? it (1) ?GDPit=a+b2YB_high-growthrichi,t? 1+c2YB_high-growthtransitioni,t? 1+d2YB_high-growthpoori,t? 1+e? log(GNICi,t? 1)+f? GCIi,t? 1+g GDPi,t? 1+? it (2) To illustrate the data at hand, TableÃ 4. 1Ã provides the YB rates and the YB medium- and high-growth rates in 2002 as well as the average annual growth rates of GDP over the period 2002Ã¢â¬â5. From TableÃ 4. 1Ã and FiguresÃ 4. 1Ã andÃ 4. 2Ã it can be seen that the ranking of countries in terms of YB or YB high-growth may be quite different. For instance, while China ranks fifth in terms of YB, it ranks first in terms ofÃ (p. 84 ) Table 4. 1 Young business rates (2002) and GDP growth rates for 36 countrieshigh-growth YB. In contrast, Thailand ranks third in terms of YB, but only tenth in terms of high-growth YB. Figure 4. 1Ã Young business rates Figure 4. 2Ã Young business 20 rates Figure 4. 3Ã Correlation of young business rates and GDP growth rates Figure 4. Ã Correlation of high growth-oriented young business rates (20+) and GDP growth rates When we regress the rate of GDP growth on the YB rate and the YB20 rate, the YB20 rate reveals to have a stronger correlation with GDP growth (see FiguresÃ 4. 3Ã andÃ 4. 4). (p. 85 )(p. 86 ) 4. 4Ã Entrepreneurship and national economic growth 4. 4. 1Ã Regression analyses The results of our empirical ex ercises are in TableÃ 4. 2. Model I presents the regression results of the impact of the general YB index (see equation (1)), while Models II and III show the results using the YB6 and YB20 rates as main independent variables (see equation (2)). The results presented in TableÃ 4. 2Ã show that the impact of entrepreneurial activity is significantly positive for rich countries, but effectively zero for poor countries. The presence of growth-oriented entrepreneurs seems to be more important for achieving GDP growth than general entrepreneurship. Comparing the coefficients of the various YB rates, we see that the impact of YB6 is greater when compared to the impact of YB in general. Meanwhile the impact of YB20 is even greater, but not always statistically significant. Having more growth-oriented entrepreneurs seems to be particularly important in transition countries. Both the magnitude and the statistical significance of the estimated coefficient point to a stronger impact compared to high-income or medium-income countries. There are many reasons that could(p. 87 ) Table 4. 2 Regression models average annual growth of GDP over the period 2002Ã¢â¬â5 (N=36)explain the importance of growth-oriented entrepreneurs in transition countries (Smallbone and WelterÃ 2006). First, there are many entrepreneurial opportunities in formerly state-dominated sectors. Second, many highly qualified individuals lost their jobs at state-financed organizations (e. . universities, enterprises, government services). Third, there are many highly qualified (potential) entrepreneurs in these countries (especially in Eastern European countries), who do not face the opportunity costs of working for large public or private organizations. Fourth, those highly qualified (potential) entrepreneurs are also well connected to the power networks that were, and to a large extent still are, important in the political and economic arena of these countries, which takes away some barriers for high-growth firms in these countries. Summarizing, it may be argued that in transition economies high-growth opportunities are more widely available and hence, a higher number of growth-oriented entrepreneurs willing to act on these opportunities may be particularly fruitful for achieving growth in these countries. However, we should be aware of the large diversity in the group of transition countries, which comprises countries like Russia and China, as well as Hungary and Slovenia. (p. 88 )Ã Our regression results should be interpreted with care as the analysis is based on a limited number of observations (36 countries). As a test of robustness we estimated the models leaving out one country at a time, i. e. we computed 36 auxiliary regressions, where each regression uses 35 observations (each time leaving one of the 36 countries out). Although t-values sometimes dropped a little, coefficients and t-values were generally in line with those reported in TableÃ 4. 2. The country that matters the most for the results obtained in TableÃ 4. 2Ã is China. This is not surprising as China combines high YB/YB6/YB20 rates with high GDP growth rates (see TableÃ 4. 1). When leaving this country out of the sample, the coefficient (t-value) for the transition countries is 0. 2 (0. 5) for the YB rate, 1. 47 (1. 2) for the YB6 rate, and 1. 72 (1. 1) for the YB20 rate. The low t-values are in part due to the low number of observations. Note, however, that the coefficients are very similar to the full sample estimates reported in TableÃ 4. 2. Furthermore, the JarqueÃ¢â¬âBera test on the normality of disturb ances is passed for all models reported in TableÃ 4. 2, indicating that it is not necessary to remove individual country observations. Therefore we feel that our results are quite robust to the potential influence of outliers. Nevertheless, given the low number of observations, the results should only be seen as a first illustration of how the impact of different types of entrepreneurship may differ between groups of countries with different levels of development. 4. 4. 2Ã Medium-income countries Within the groups of transition and developing economies there are substantial differences in entrepreneurship rates. Chile stands out because of a particularly high rate of growth-oriented entrepreneurship, while Mexico has a particularly low rate of growth-oriented entrepreneurship. In contrast to high-income countries, entrepreneurship in medium-income countries is mainly driven by necessity: self-employment is often the only occupational choice given a paucity of other sources of employment (necessity-based entrepreneurship; see Acs and AmorosÃ 2008; Bosma et al. 2008). The actions of most of the entrepreneurs in medium-income countries are not likely to have an effect on the restructuring and diversification of the poor economies. This would be the whole story if the rates of growth-oriented entrepreneurship would also be marginal in these economies. This is only the case for Mexico. Next to ChileÃ¢â¬âwhere opportunity-driven entrepreneurship is dominantÃ¢â¬âBrazil, India, and Argentina perform quite well with respect to growth-oriented entrepreneurship. This means that there still is a substantial group of entrepreneurs in medium-income countries that might get involved in a process of self-discovery. The problem in practice is that in contrast to rich and transition economies, growth-oriented entrepreneurship is less likely toÃ (p. 89 )Ã be realized in developing economies, due to constraints on the provision of capital and (skilled) labour. An additional constraint in medium-income countries is that there are relatively few (foreign) large companies, which could act as a training ground for prospective growth-oriented entrepreneurs, and could open up distribution channels for new fledgling enterprises (KnorringaÃ 1996). This is also reflected in the finding of Bosma, Stam, and Wennekers (2010) that the incidence of intrapreneurship (i. e. employees developing new business activities for their employer) is much lower in medium-income countries than in high-income countries. In addition, one should make a distinction between large firms with productive (manufacturing) and resource extractive (mining, oil) activities here, as the former will be more useful for the development of entrepreneurship than the latter. 4. 4. 3Ã Transition countries New firms in transition countries not only displace obsolete incumbents but also fill in new markets, which were either non-existent or poorly populated in the past. Our study suggests that in transition countries, growth-oriented entrepreneurs make an important contribution to economic growth. They create new jobs with relatively high incomes which the small incumbent population of private firms cannot provide. This entrepreneurial growth process is facilitated by the relatively high levels of human capital in combination with relatively low opportunity costs of self-employment of the adult population. The high degree of environmental dynamism in these countriesÃ¢â¬âwhich is likely to positively affect the level of growth expectations and realizations of entrepreneurs in these countriesÃ¢â¬ârequires ambitious and well-connected entrepreneurs in order to translate these abundant opportunities in economic growth. There are considerable differences within the group of transition countries. Hsu (2005) shows that the role of these connections differs considerably between China and Russia: in China it was a tool which could be used to build enough trust to allow business transactions to succeed (Ã¢â¬Ëcapitalism without contractsÃ¢â¬â¢). In contrast, in Russia these connections devolved into corruption, and faded in importance for ordinary citizens. Without a way to build trust or extend networks, Russians retreated into defensive involution, and engaged in predatory behaviour against those outside their small circles of friends. Instead of capitalism without contracts, Russia suffered the depredations of Ã¢â¬Ëcapitalists without capitalismÃ¢â¬â¢. There are also substantial differences in entrepreneurship rates within the groups of transition economies. China stands out because of particularly high rates of growth-oriented entrepreneurship (cf. HsuÃ 2005). Even though the YBÃ (p. 90 )Ã rate is below the average of transition countries, the growth of self-employment has been enormous, not only in the richer coastal provinces, but also in rural areas (Mohapatra, Rozelle, and GoodhueÃ 2007). Research by Djankov et al. (2006) also shows that entrepreneurs in China are more risk-taking and more committed to an entrepreneurial career than entrepreneurs in Russia. In addition, Russia has (and had: see HsuÃ 2005) a particularly low rate of entrepreneurship in general as well. The striking difference between entrepreneurship rates in China and Russia can be explained by their different paths from socialism to capitalism: gradualism and a shock therapy (see BurawoyÃ 1996). In China the gradual transformation started with a policy of decollectivization (decentralization of property relations) in the late 1970s and the promotion of small-scale industry, with a focus on promoting independent entrepreneurship. Experimentation with new economic arrangements, for example privatization of small state-owned enterprises, has led to a favourable accumulation of productive capabilities in China. In contrast, Russia underwent a shock therapy in which the old communist regime was liquidated, with a focus on rapid privatization of the state sector. However, the Russian state failed to organize a market economy, which led to a coordination and entrepreneurial vacuum into which have stepped conglomerates, banks and mafia, siphoning off surplus from production to exchange (BurawoyÃ 1996). 4. 5Ã Discussion of policy implications In this section we will briefly discuss the potential implications of our exploration of the relationship between types of entrepreneurship and economic growth for entrepreneurship policy and industrial/cluster policy in medium-income and transition countries. 5 4. 5. 1Ã Entrepreneurship policy Our empirical analyses suggest that entrepreneurship does not have an effect on economic growth in medium-income countries, in contrast to transition and high-income countries where both growth-oriented entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship in general seem to contribute strongly to macroeconomic growth. Does this mean that stimulating entrepreneurship in medium-income countries is bad policy? The least we can say is that stimulating entrepreneurship alone will be insufficient as it is likely to attract necessity entrepreneurs with low human capital levels who do not contribute to economic growth. The non-significant effect of entrepreneurship on economic growth in medium-income countries might point at a shortage of large firms in these countries. By exploitation of economies of scale and scope and byÃ (p. 91 )Ã adopting and diffusing technology developed elsewhere, large firms are important in transforming a developing economy into a developed economy (van Stel, Carree, and ThurikÃ 2005). In these economies local workers are more productive working as wage employees than as entrepreneurs. Nevertheless stimulating growth-oriented entrepreneurship might be an additional element of transforming a developing economy into a developed one. Attracting investments by large (possibly foreign) firms, stimulating growth-oriented entrepreneurship, investing in labour and capital, and improving the institutional framework may be the recipe for growth here. On the one hand this is old news, in that it provides a plea for the traditional role of governments to invest in education and physical infrastructure, and to build and maintain a set of institutions that enable the development of the private sector (cf. Rosenberg and BirdzellÃ 1986). On the other hand, the addition of growth-oriented entrepreneurship in development policy for medium-income and transition countries is a new element. One must be careful to target the right group of entrepreneurs though, i. e. governments should avoid that resources made available through government stimulation programmes are absorbed by necessity entrepreneurs with low human capital levels. 4. 5. 2Ã Industrial/cluster policy The focus of this chapter has been on the country-level, which disregards the sub-national level of analysis, and what is of particular relevance here, the level of regional clusters (regional concentrations of particular industries). These regional clusters have proved to be important drivers of economic development in, for example, Taiwan, India, and Brazil. These clusters are both driven by and drive growth-oriented entrepreneurship. Growth-oriented entrepreneurs that start to invest in a particular industry are needed in order to reach a critical mass that is needed to reach certain agglomeration economies (Braunerhjelm and FeldmanÃ 2006). If the build-up of capacity to this level of critical mass is not reached due to the lack of complementary investments, there might be a role to play for governments to overcome coordination failure, for example by providing investment guarantees for entrepreneurs (see RodrikÃ 2007). Such industrial policy is not about Ã¢â¬Ëpicking winnersÃ¢â¬â¢ or comprehensive planning, but encouraging experiments with new types of economic activity (Rodrik2007). Since it is impossible to judge winners and losers in advance, competent and growth-oriented entrepreneurs should be encouraged to try, success should be rewarded, and failure should not be coddled (Nelson and PackÃ 1999). These clusters do not have to be close to the technology frontier (as in advanced capitalist economies). The real policy implications arise from thinking carefully about the particular sources of advantage for a nascent clusterÃ (p. 2 )Ã and why that source might yield short-term complements with the potential to become long-term substitutes (Bresnahan, Gambardella, and SaxenianÃ 2001). Cooperation of clusters in developing countries with existing richer economies is not Ã¢â¬ËcolonialistÃ¢â¬â¢. Take for example the linkages with the US. India and Taiwan are linked to the US (especiall y Silicon Valley) via outsourcing of software services and manufacturing (due to low labour costs), but also by a returning group of expatriates who have worked there, and who see the benefits of long distance collaboration (SaxenianÃ 1999). There is a flow of peopleÃ¢â¬âthe so-called Argonauts (SaxenianÃ 2006)Ã¢â¬âand ideas back and forth between rich and emerging economies. Migrant workers tend to be among the most entrepreneurial in society. Governments of developing countries should not only look at these expatriate workers as a source of remittances. Given their entrepreneurialism, skills, and exposure to business in the developed world, as well as the desire of many of them to return home, they may be very important as a source of self-discovery in their country of origin (RodrikÃ 2007). In addition to developing the private sector, these return migrants may provide the new elite needed for building up a civil society. Only a fraction of the money spent on attracting FDI would be needed to target nationals abroad. This would attract more knowledgeable human capital and durable investments than most FDI will do. Once critical mass is reached within a regional cluster, it is likely to generate or attract growth-oriented entrepreneurs (e. g. Argonauts), who in turn stimulate further macroeconomic growth. 4. 5. 3Ã Limitations and further research The regression analyses in this chapter are of limited value: they have not only simplified the range6and (linear) effects of determinants for economic development, they have also dumbed down economic development to economic growth over a short-term (four-year) period. We know that sustaining growth is more difficult (and caused by different factors) than igniting it (RodrikÃ 2007). This also connects to one of the other shortcomings: sustaining growth probably requires much more extensive institutional reform than can be properly taken into account in linear regression analyses. Next to better measures of institutions, future research should take into account samples with low-income countries and a larger number of medium-income and transition countries, and multiple years in order to achieve more robust empirical analyses. In addition, our data did not allow for testing the multiplicative effect of entrepreneurship, so we only analysed the additive effect. A larger number of cases would enable the inclusion of the more traditional indicators of capital and labour in the analyses, and allow for testing the multiplicative effect. How to cite Types of Entrepreneurship, Essay examples
Sunday, December 8, 2019
Can you imagine life without any communication with other people? Do you think, it will be easy for us to socialize with them? Well, it is hard to imagine a life where there is absolutely no communication. In fact; maybe it is not even possible to lead a life without communication. Communication is the activity of conveying information, signals, writing, or behavior and communication requires a message, although the receiver need not to be present or aware of the senderÃ¢â¬â¢s to communicate at the time of communication. Also, communication process is to complete since the receiver has the message of the sender. Communication has a different types. The types of communication that I know are business communication, nonverbal communication, effective communication and animal communication. Business communication is communication that promotes a product or service and business communication can also refer to internal communication. Also, business communication is almost different and unique from other types of communication since the purpose of business is to make money. We will write a custom essay sample on What is Communication? or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Nonverbal communication is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless. Also, nonverbal communication represents two-thirds of all communication. Effective communication happens when longed for effect is the result of panned or not panned and effective communication is information sharing. Animal communication can be described as any traits of one animal that causes the ongoing or future behavior of another animal. Therefore, without any communication living for us will not be easy.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Women in Combat Michael Cox 1st Hour 11-2-10 Women have played a tremendous roll in many countries armed forces from the past to the present. Women have thoroughly integrated into the armed forces; all positions in the armed forces should be fully accessible to women who can compete with men intellectually and physically. Yet, many argue that the distinction between combat and non-combat becomes blurred in the context of women warfare. In actuality, many women are assigned to jobs that will expose them to enemy attack, and this has been openly acknowledged by the top Pentagon officials. The United States Army has also recognized that women would be deployed in combat zones as an inevitable consequence of their assignments. This was confirmed in the following statement made by then Army Chief of Staff, General Bernad W. Rogers, ?Some people believe that women soldiers will not be deployed in the event of hostilities that they are only to be part-time soldier. Women are an essential part of the force; they will deploy with their units and they will serve in the skills in which they have been trained?. In the most powerful country in the world, the defense should not be taken lightly. Only the most qualified and strong people fight for the US. That is why I propose that women be allowed in combat If a woman is qualified and willing, she should not be denied the chance to defend her country ...especially if she possesses skills needed by the military... The military provides so many opportunities for men and women alike, so how can women be enthusiastic about their service if they know that females are being shut out of certain areas? First lets establish what exactly combat is. Combat equal active fighting with enemy forces. Congress has established that women are unfit to fight in a combat situation for several reasons. There is the obvious psychological differences men and women posess. Personal hygeine, and the physical aspects are also reasons. Another problem is that sexual urges come about when the two sexes are together. There is a long line of discrimination in the military and concerning women in history. Women were just given the right to vote not too long ago. Women have been constantly proving their equality to men by demonstrating their capabilities to do equal tasks. As far as the military is concerned, blacks werent allowed to join the military because they were said to be inferior. They proved the governments wrong and now black men are leaders in the army. Gay people are allowed in the military after much dispute, so long as they keep it private. Since it is established that blacks and gays are equal in the military, we are living in a society where women are holding high positions, in the supreme court, politics and those sorts of jobs. There is no reason that women should not be able to defend our country in combat. Women are allowed to use guns on the police force and also on the SWAT team. Military Police are often providing battlefield security, both male and female, called Combat Patrols.....Also, women and men are both trained in comba t arms in basic training for the military. There is no chance for women to utilize their skills, and I propose that women be allowed to be in combat if they wish. Granted, they pass physical tests, just as men do. There should be no more discrimination among sexes when it comes to national defense. Some interesting facts you may want to know are that 1 out of every 6 soldiers are women. Only 20% of the army is combat. If we included women in combat, that number could grow and we could have more qualified soldiers fighting for your safety. In conclusion, Women should be allowed in combat for service in the United states military . There is no reason why women should be discriminated against anymore, when given the chance, I am sure that Congress will realize that women may be just as qualified to defend, you, the citizens of the US.War has been a part of humanity almost as long as humanity itself. However, women at war have not been.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
A debate that all sociologists find themselves trying to fight is the Nurture vs. Nature. It is also sometimes known as the genetic/environmental controversy. The debate concerning the influence of nature and nurture in development is one of the most controversial and long-running in Psychology. When trying to answer the question 'What makes us the way we are?', we need to consider both the influence of innate influences such as personality traits or genetics, and of the environment and surroundings. These two sides are fought very well. Nature and nurture affect behavior by influencing the structure and function of the nervous system. How genes, environment and experiences interact to tailor a person's behavior .In this controversy, we ask if the behavior of people is due to their Nature (or genetics) or to their Nurture (or environment). This is a philosophical question which science can only answer at the sidelines. Charles DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s strongly believes that human behavior is nature. For example what happens in our lives like becoming gamblers or criminals we are born with and it is not through experiences. Darwin fought this debate so that in the U.S people believed that humans behavior was instinctive, simply our Ã¢â¬Å" natureÃ¢â¬ . John B Watson developed a theory named behaviorism, which seized that behavior was not instinctive but a learned behavior. For example our surroundings and life experiences form who we become. This would be nurture which is important in developing human behavior in culture. If we take identical twins, and give one the best environment possible, and put the other one in closet for eighteen years the differences will be profound, and caused totally by environmental differences between the two children. At the extreme the proponents of the Nurture side of the controversy would have us believe that the differences in human behavior are like the differences in the twin... Free Essays on Nurture vs. Nature Free Essays on Nurture vs. Nature A debate that all sociologists find themselves trying to fight is the Nurture vs. Nature. It is also sometimes known as the genetic/environmental controversy. The debate concerning the influence of nature and nurture in development is one of the most controversial and long-running in Psychology. When trying to answer the question 'What makes us the way we are?', we need to consider both the influence of innate influences such as personality traits or genetics, and of the environment and surroundings. These two sides are fought very well. Nature and nurture affect behavior by influencing the structure and function of the nervous system. How genes, environment and experiences interact to tailor a person's behavior .In this controversy, we ask if the behavior of people is due to their Nature (or genetics) or to their Nurture (or environment). This is a philosophical question which science can only answer at the sidelines. Charles DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s strongly believes that human behavior is nature. For example what happens in our lives like becoming gamblers or criminals we are born with and it is not through experiences. Darwin fought this debate so that in the U.S people believed that humans behavior was instinctive, simply our Ã¢â¬Å" natureÃ¢â¬ . John B Watson developed a theory named behaviorism, which seized that behavior was not instinctive but a learned behavior. For example our surroundings and life experiences form who we become. This would be nurture which is important in developing human behavior in culture. If we take identical twins, and give one the best environment possible, and put the other one in closet for eighteen years the differences will be profound, and caused totally by environmental differences between the two children. At the extreme the proponents of the Nurture side of the controversy would have us believe that the differences in human behavior are like the differences in the twin...
Friday, November 22, 2019
The Upside of Change No More Automatic Group Member Connections on LinkedIn On October 1, 2014, LinkedIn unceremoniously eliminated a widely relied-upon function: the ability to connect with anyone with whom you share a group, without needing to know their email address. Before October, if you wanted to connect with someone on LinkedIn with whom you shared a group, you would see a dropdown that looked like this: Now, the dropdown is one item shorter: While some LinkedIn members are postulating that the loss of automatic group member connections is a technical glitch that will be resolved, IÃ¢â¬â¢m assuming for now that itÃ¢â¬â¢s a permanent game changer. LinkedIn experts have recommended for years that you join the maximum number of LinkedIn group (50) so that you can easily expand your network. This reason for group membership seems to have disappeared. Or has it? The fact is, the people in your groups are still pre-filtered for shared interests and so you might still want to make the effort to connect with them. Just because you need their email address doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean you have to give up on building your network! Groups are still a great place to interact with valuable contacts, share information, and ask and answer questions. You can still do all that! The elimination of the automatic group connection feature might actually have an upside. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s say thereÃ¢â¬â¢s someone in a group you want to connect with. What should you do? First, look in their Contact Information section or their Summary for their email address. If you find it there, you can easily enter it when prompted. Next, if you know what company they work for, Google them at their company. Or Google anyone at the company and you might be able to model your new contactÃ¢â¬â¢s email address on someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s. For instance, if you find an address like JaneSmith@Company.com, you can guess that your contactÃ¢â¬â¢s email address is JohnBrown@Company.com. If those options fail, you now must send an actual *message* to the person! Its free though. There are two ways to do this: Option #1 From Discussions, click on the members photo or name link to see that members activity. You will be taken to that members group Activity summary page. Click the Follow drop down menu on the right and select Send message. Option #2 Go to the group page and click on the number of members at the top right of the page. Search for the member you want to message. Then click the Send message link under their title. Your message might read something like this: Dear John, I was impressed by your contribution to the discussion in the Job Hunt group about HR practices in pharmaceutical companies. I would love to speak with you further about this topic and would be honored if you would provide me with your email address so I can send you an invitation to join my network! I would be happy to arrange a phone call as a starting point. Yes my dear social-media-savvy, you might have to interact with another human being before adding them as another number on your connection list. What IÃ¢â¬â¢m suggesting is that LinkedIn may have done us all a favor by forcing us to work a bit to connect with people whom we donÃ¢â¬â¢t really know even though we share a group. What do you think about this idea? Remember again that group membership is valuable for many reasons, not just for ease of connecting with group members. Smaller, more local group in particular provide a forum for you to become a thought leader in your niche. If you participate enthusiastically enough, itÃ¢â¬â¢s likely that other people will do the work of finding *your* contact information and send you requests to connect, rather than the other way around! What do you see as the impact of the Ã¢â¬Å"lossÃ¢â¬ of this connection feature? IÃ¢â¬â¢d love to hear your opinion.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Network Security - Essay Example (Petersen and Davie, 2012; C?etinkaya et al, 2010) 2. 0 Overview of Network Fundamentals, Security Threats, and Issues The simplest form of a computer network is a pair of computers connected with each other by the means of an Ethernet cable, Bluetooth, etc. However, we generally see complex networks involving several. The basic hardware requirements to develop a computer network involve network adapters, network hubs and switches, routers and access points, modems, and network cables. Modern corporate networks use wireless router and access points, which accommodate both wired Ethernet connectivity for desktop PCs and wireless connections for mobile devices and notebook computers. (Petersen and Davie, 2012) Regarding security threats and issues, we must understand that recently the hackers are aiming corporate information, media centers, and other kinds of different information security systems. CEOs and CIOs at organizations are facing unforeseen challenges like email bombardment, spamming, denial of service, and distributed denial of service attacks. Moreover, protection of the systems and networks from spyware, malware, viruses, etc. is an imperative particularly when they are connected to a public inter-network. (Andress, 2011, C?etinkaya et al, 2010) 3. ... The firewall sets up a kind of filter when the internal network of the company is connected to a public network. (Zwicky et al, 2000) VPN is the abbreviation of Virtual Private Network. It is a kind of private data network which Ã¢â¬Å"makes use of the public telecommunication infrastructure, maintaining privacy through the use of a tunneling protocol and security proceduresÃ¢â¬ (VPNC, 2008). It operates independently of the public network (e.g. Internet) and has customized access control and dedicated network operating system at the server side. 3.2 Recommendations for Firewalls and VPNs A firewall must spotlight Internet security and support filtering the diverse websites, programs and applications run on the Web, and scrutinize threats during surfing. It should also accept/reject the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) client requests and control the Remote Assistance Services (RAS). Also, Mueller (2011, p. 7-130) has stated that Ã¢â¬Å"Users install third party firewalls and virus p rotection products in many cases, so youÃ¢â¬â¢ll also need to consider these third party products as part of an overall application strategy.Ã¢â¬ According to the experts at VPN Consortium, the major rationale of a VPN is to provide the company with the similar facilities as privately held leased lines can provide. Additionally, technologists are striving to keep VPN technology cheaper and simpler without making considerable usage of public infrastructure through sharing or cloud computing. Telephone companies have commercially offered privately shared network resources through technology services like VoIP, mail servers, database integration, etc. throughout the last decade. However, a VPN makes it feasible to have
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
OPM300 - Intro. to Operations Mgmt - Essay Example From here the products move into the maturity stages and finally into the decline stage. Hence the product life cycle fits in the Regal products perfectly and each product that the company produced goes through the product lifecycle before declining and exiting the markets. It is important for Regal to identify the stages where each of its products is so that it can develop new products in a planned manner.Ã In order to remain competitive Regal produces all boats in four stages, i.e. introduction, deign conceptualisation and once the design is conceptualised, then it tends to be more easier to put the design through the CAD models as well. The next stage includes the introduction of the product into the market. Here due to the innovations and the constant corrections and improvements, the products of the company grow well and fast in the markets and also helps in keeping a constant mix of new designs within the markets. This then leads to the maturity stage of the life cycle. The c urrent strategy adopted by Regal is the product differentiation. Here the company keeps developing innovative products to meet its competition and to also provide better and higher value to the customers. For example it developed a 3-passenger Rush a boat priced at $11,000 that could pull a water skier.
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Battle of the Philippine Essay Thus, Nimitz had anticipated the two critical facets of YamamotoÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic plan of having the battleship supported by aircraft carriers instead of the other way around Ã¢â¬â and Nimitz knew that the big battleship Ã¢â¬Å"YamatoÃ¢â¬ was far slower than any other Japanese battleship and Nimitz was also aware that the Japanese the smaller battleships were supposed to lure away the Americans away from the main contingent . Hence, all of the Japanese plans, no matter how ingenious it was Ã¢â¬â did not work. Skirmishes between smaller contingents started early of June 3rd . But June 4th was D-day time. Japanese planes attacked power plants and installations at Midway, the Battle of Midway has begun. The implications and losses for the Japanese forces were huge Ã¢â¬â within several minutes, the Japanese Navy had lost half of its carrier force Ã¢â¬â a force that had been considered to be manned by the Japanese NavyÃ¢â¬â¢s elite. Overall, the Japanese lost four vital aircraft carriers vital to their Pacific campaign and the majority of its experienced crew and air fighters. This was why military tacticians on both sides already knew that after the Battle of Midway, the tide of the war has turned in favor of the Allied forces . The next battle fought on sea was the Battle of the Philippine Sea on June 18th to June 20th, 1944 . It was here that Admiral OzawaÃ¢â¬â¢s retirement and abstention from the battle that doomed any Japanese hope of stemming the tide against the American forces. The Japanese lost the Shokaku, Taiho and Hiyo (in each case about two-thirds of the shipsÃ¢â¬â¢ company) and the oilers destroyed, as well as some 400 planes lost from the carriers . On land, they were defeated in the Battle of Manila Bay and were forced to withdraw from the battle of Guadalcanal when the allies started their island Ã¢â¬â hopping campaign that had begun in the Solomon Islands. This pushed back the Japanese one island after another. The allies tactically isolated the Japanese major forces in the pacific located at Rabaul. Finally the Japanese were defeated once again as the allied forces pushed them back towards the Philippine islands sea, and the battle of the Leyte Gulf in October 19, 1944. That day, the Americans, headed by General Douglas MacArthur fulfilled his promise of returning to the Philippines . From Leyte Gulf, the Americans coordinated with the existing guerilla forces made up of joint American and Filipino recruits. Finally, on February 4, 1945, the Americans entered Manila and the Yalta Conference was held in USSR . From there the recapture of the Marianas and the Philippine islands were used as a take Ã¢â¬â off point to advance to JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s homeland, and on to the invasion of Iwo Jima and Okinawa. However, in spite of the aggressive military campaign and successive defeats the Japanese suffered from the hands of the allied forces, the emperor refuses to budge and accept defeat to end the war. Instead, the code of BUSHIDO was once again called upon and young Japanese men called to duty went on suicidal missions purposely using their planes as weapons against aircraft carriers and other enemy targets. During that time the US had developed an experimental bomb Ã¢â¬â the A-bomb and was used as a last recourse to make the Japanese government surrender and stop the continuing carnage. On July 16, the Potsdam conference started. Meanwhile, the first atomic bomb is exploded in a test at Alamogordo, New Mexico. July 26, the Potsdam Declaration is delivered to Japan. On August 2, the Potsdam conference ended . On August 5, 1945 the US dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Still, the Japanese government did not heed the warning. August 8: Russia declares war on Japan. On August 9, another bomb decimated the city of Nagasaki. Finally, Japan surrendered on August 14, 1945 and accepted the Allied terms . VI. Conclusion The passion and ferocity displayed by the Japanese soldiersÃ¢â¬â¢ generals and rank and file throughout the entire course of World War 2 proved to the whole world how ready the Japanese were in embracing and enforcing this war. Their cultural mentality and their refusal to budge even at the expense of their young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives showed how tenacious they intended this war would be fought. Their disdain of soldiers who have surrendered during the war Ã¢â¬â particularly during the Ã¢â¬Å"Bataan Death MarchÃ¢â¬ and their treatment of captured American and British officers bolster their Ã¢â¬Å"BushidoÃ¢â¬ mentality. Japanese soldiers were trained to fight or die. These soldiers, no matter what the cost would offer their lives and commit Ã¢â¬Å"HarakiriÃ¢â¬ rather than be captured. Hence, they only have the lowest of regard for those who surrender or for those who allowed themselves to be captured. There was no mistaking in assuming that the Japanese prepared and were ready for generations Ã¢â¬â from the late 1900s into the 20th century that they were trained to go to war and conquer. Bibliography:  Bauer, E. Lt-Colonel The History of World War II, Orbis (2000) General Editor: Brigadier Peter Young; Consultants: Brigadier General James L. Collins Jr. , Correli Barnet. (1,024 pages). (Accessed February 01, 2007).  Brinkley, Alan. (2005). The Unfinished Nation: A Brief Interactive History of the American People. Chapters 32 to 33. pp. 502-537. New York. (Accessed February 02 to 03, 2007). www.historylearningsite.co.uk
Thursday, November 14, 2019
In Hamlet, Shakespeare follows regular convention for a large part of the play. In the beginning, Shakespeare sets up the scene, having a ghost on a dark night. Everyone is working and something strange is happening in Denmark. It is as if Shakespeare is saying that some kind of foul play has been committed. This sets up for the major theme in the play which is of course revenge. The ghost appears to talk to Hamlet. It is quite obvious that the play had a gruesome, violent death and the sexual aspect of the play was clearly introduced when Claudius married HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s mother Gertrude. The ghost tells Hamlet that he has been given the role of the person who will take revenge upon Claudius. Hamlet must now think of how to take revenge on Claudius, although he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know what to do about it. He ponders his thoughts for a long period of time, expecting to do the deed immediately, but instead he drags it on until the end of the play. Although what was important to note was that all tragic heroes of plays at that time delayed their actual revenge until the end of the play. In most revenge plays, the revenger was often anonymous and well disguised, stalking the enemy about to be killed, but Hamlet started a battle of wits with Claudius by acting mad and calling it his Ã¢â¬Å"antic dispositionÃ¢â¬ , although the whole thing was a ploy to get closer to Claudius to be able to avenge his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death more easily. The tactic was a disadvantage in that it drew all attention upon himself. More importantly though it was an advantage that his Ã¢â¬Å"antic dispositionÃ¢â¬ , isolated him from the rest of the court because of the people not paying attention to what he thought or did because of his craziness. One important part of all revenge plays is that after the revenge is finally decided upon, the tragic hero delays the actual revenge until the end of the play. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s delay of killing Claudius takes on three distinct stages. Firstly he had to prove that the ghost was actually telling the truth, and he did this by staging the play Ã¢â¬Å"The MousetrapÃ¢â¬ at court. When Claudius stormed out in rage, Hamlet knew that he was guilty. The second stage was when Hamlet could have killed Claudius while he was confessing to god. If Hamlet had done it here then Claudius would have gone to heaven because he confessed while HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s father was in purgatory because he did not get the opportunity to confess. So Hamlet therefore decided not to murder Claudius at this
Monday, November 11, 2019
Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter presents concepts and studies that expounded the variables under the study. Conceptual Literature To become a registered nurse, graduates of Bachelor of Science in Nursing course must take their final test thatÃ¢â¬â¢ll assess their knowledge, skills and competency to work in the profession. This test is called Nursing Licensure Examination (NLE). In Philippines NLE is a 500-item multiple choice exam to test basic nursing level competency which considers the objectives of the nursing curriculum, the broad areas of nursing and other related disciplines and competencies.NLE is held every June and December annually in various public schools throughout the Philippines. Takers are assigned in different schools and rooms to provide quality control and avoid overcrowding. Room assignment for the exams are posted outside the Professional Regulation Commission building at least three days before the exam. NLE results are released after 30 w orking days though it may vary depending on the number of takers and other factors. However, not all takers are fortunate enough to pass the exams and never have been any occurrence of 100% national passing rate throughout NLEÃ¢â¬â¢s history.Non passers may review and retake but some are faced with dilemmas thatÃ¢â¬â¢ll make it even harder for them to cope up and pass the next time around. A total of 16,908 out of 49,066 passed the Nurse Licensure Examination given by the Board of Nursing last December 2012 which was held in 16 areas around the country. The Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) is closely monitoring schools that offer BSN course to enforce the standards and for them to provide quality education to their students. Nursing schools are given three years to improve their passing rate.However if these arenÃ¢â¬â¢t met the schools may face possible closure of their nursing program. The quality of education the school provides is only one of the various issues that affect the success of takers. There are also other factors that depend largely on the students own capabilities. Others may come from low performing schools in relation to passing rates yet achieve a high score in the exams. Many studies have analyzed the factors behind the performance of students. Earlier studies have been carried out which focused on cognitive factors as predictors of academic success.Recently, there has been a growing interest on the non-cognitive factors. A number of researchers have examined the role of non-cognitive variables such as study skills (Fazal, S. et. al, 2012; Awang, G & Sinnadurai, S. K. , 2011; Demir et. al, 2012; Hassanbeigi et. al, 2011), study motivation (Tella, A. , 2007; Nonis and Hudson, 2008), study behavior (Yang Yang, 2011; Otto, 1978), study habits on academic achievement. Some argued that these factors have strong relationship with academic performance of students, while others concluded that it was the combination of the different fac tors that could explain studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic performance.In addition to that, Crede and Kuncel (2008) found that non-cognitive factors like study habit, skill and study motivation, among other attitudinal constructs, accounted for incremental variance in academic performance beyond standardized tests and previous grades. Moreover, a literature review by Nagaraju (2004) pointed out that for good academic success, good study habits and attitudes are important. Study habit is the pattern of behavior adopted by students in the pursuit of their studies that serves as the vehicle of learning.It is the degree to which the student engages in regular acts of studying that are characterized by appropriate studying routines (e. g. reviews of material, frequency of studying sessions, etc. ) occurring in an environment that is conducive to studying. Study attitudes, on the other hand, refers to a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s positive attitude toward the specific act of studying and the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptance and approval of the broader goals of college education (Crede and Kuncel, 2008). In short, study habits and attitudes of students are determined through their time management ability, work methods, attitudes toward teachers and acceptance of education.Many problems encountered by the students are inter-related and should be regarded in a comprehensive manner. However the way they see their problem would be a lot different on how it is seen by others. So in the end, the probability of success depends on the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s habits and activity during their 4 year education. Schools are not the only ones to be blamed for the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ failures. This study aims to depict these factors affecting their failures in their point of view to allow us to fully understand them.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
A 76 year old Indian man died of starvation that is called Ã¢â¬Å"santharaÃ¢â¬ . It is an old practice in Jainism where a person fasts for a number of days and is believed to help the person achieve salvation. Some people are still not amenable to this practice as they believe that this is a sort of suicide. On the other hand, Amar Chand, the man who died, believed that it would help him cleanse his soul as he has been ill for some time already. Ã¢â¬Å"SantharaÃ¢â¬ is a religious ritual described as intended death by fasting. During the process of fasting, the person is given time to reflect on his life, which is reason why this is considered to bring salvation. If someone feels like he has served his purpose in life and felt like he has imparted enough of himself to the world, one can decide to fast. There are a lot of religious practices in the world; some may even seem absurd and illogical. However, to the followers of the specific religions, their belief stands by the fact that they would be able to achieve something out of it; in this case, salvation. If you think about it, to decide that you have served your purpose is a sign of consciousness and knowledge of the belief that you are following. It shows that given enough will power and faith in something, anybody can do anything. To the Jains, though some may think that Ã¢â¬Å"santharaÃ¢â¬ is synonymous to suicide, they still hold on to the practice because as far as they know, being able to reflect upon oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life can help them save themselves from spiritual death just as the Muslims believe that they need to travel to Mecca at least once in their life.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Themes of the Scarlet Letter essays Themes Pertaining to The Scarlet Letter The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, illustrates upon many ideas referring to life and ways of living. He touches on values viewed by people of all types of social status. Morals, which should be engraved in ones mind, seemed to be forgotten. These actions that should have never been performed are topics revealed in The Scarlet Letter. The actions being accomplished include ideas such as sin, revenge, and betrayal. Hawthorne uses many techniques in developing the themes that shape this novel. The act of sin occurs many times throughout the novel. Hawthorne gradually develops the sin committed by Reverend Dimmesdale. In the beginning of the book the reader has no idea who the real father of Pearl is. Not until the end of the book did the surrounding townspeople know that Mr. Dimmesdale, a reverend, was the person held responsible. Hawthorne did a good job in prolonging the secret, which in essence helped form a great theme. Although Reverend Dimmesdales disobedience wasnt clarified until the end of the story, another action going against the church started off the novel. The sin of adultery was what Hester Prynne was guilty of committing. Hawthorne decided to ripen this concept in just the opposite way of Reverend Dimmesdales sin. Her sin ended up making her the main attraction of the marketplace. As the story progressed, everyone became more mild about her sin. So as one sin was declining, another one was progressing. Since sin was constantly being seen through out the entirety of the novel, its now easy to see why sin was a main theme. Revenge being another theme in the book, was thought and planned out by a leading character in The Scarlet Letter. Building such a character as Roger Chillingworth made it easy for Hawthorne to construct a topic like revenge. By interacting Chillingworth and Mr. Dimmesdale more often towards the middle of the...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Have you ever wondered what it would be like to switch places with your mom? Or what losing your job would be like? In the summer of 2014 I faced both of these problems. I had just started caddying and was not looking forward to it but, I had just my parents saw it as more than a jobit was a learning experience. I would do anything to avoid going to work even when my parents encouraged me. As an only child my parents always put me first but, when one of them needed me I put everything aside because family comes first. In 2014 my mom fell from a 20 foot ladder. She broke her pelvis and shattered her wrist from the impact of the fall. She was put into a hospital and needed to get surgery for both of her injuries. My dad stayed with her for as long as he could but had to work so I took care of my mom. I had to go to the hospital two times a day to check in on her and see if she needed anything. The situation was very awkward for me because for the first time my mom and I had switched roles. At the time I was happy to take care of my mom because it was an excuse for me not to go to work. For my job you have to be in the top 100 in order to come back the next year. In the back of my head I knew that I was not going to make that because of the situation I had on my hands. After the year had ended I had found out I didnt take the top 100. My parents were disappointed that I did not make the list but where more proud that I had helped my mom when she needed it. The next year my mom talked to my boss and told him why I didnt make the list. He was very understanding and gave me my job back. The next summer when I got back to work I was extremely motivated to make my parents proud and succeed in my job. I worked hard the entire year finished in the top 100 and even received a promotion. As a kid, I didnt realize how important it was tohave a flexible well paying job. My parents always set me up for success and when I was little I was not able to recognize that. By putting everything aside during the situation I was able to learn valuable life lessons along with important things about myself. I learned that no matter what happens in life family always come first and that you never know how someone feels until you walk in their shoes. I took for granted what my mom had always done for me because I thought it was just what she was supposed to do. After I took care of her for that summer I realized how hard she worked to suit my every need no matter how hard the task. I learned that I am hardworking and when I put my mind to something im devoted to do it to the best of my a bilities. The situation helped me to evolve into the person that I have become and at the same time show me that family is the most important thing in life. Spending the time with my parents during a time of hardship brought us closer then we had ever been. I was able to make them proud because of my actions regarding the accident and how I bounced back in life stronger than ever. Not only did I learn things about myself but my family learned that no matter the situation we can always count on one another.
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Why should saudi arabia care about climate change - Research Paper Example Without any doubts, only if all the countries and nations in the world unite for this cause then only we could move towards a solution. Saudi Arabia is one of the countries, which has received the label on being an obstructionist to this cause because reducing carbon emissions would seriously hamper their economy. This paper is an attempt to show that Ã¢â¬Å"why should Saudi Arabia care about climate changeÃ¢â¬ . This paper, written with the help of secondary sources, shows that with a shift from fossil fuels to alternative energy sources and creating a service based, free market, private sector dominated economy would allow the kingdom to remove inefficiencies from the economy and would result in creation of an economy, which would be less vulnerable to external shocks. Second, Saudi Arabia itself is facing the consequences of climate change in form of increasing temperatures, evaporation of Lake Layla, and other water sources, sand storms and others. Third, if Saudi Arabia contin ues to obstruct and create problems for in global climate change then it would not be long before the world would decide to corner Saudi Arabia and impose sanctions and barriers on trade with the country. Fourth, the world is actively looking for alternative energy resources and the kingdom would not be able to blackmail the world for long. Fifth, according to the Islamic principles, it is the responsibility of the government to save the planet. Sixth, if Saudi Arabia continues to destroy the environment with its carbon emissions then this current generation would not be able to look into the eyes of their children for which they would leave the planet in the worse condition. TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS 3 INTRODUCTION 4 METHODS 4 RESULTS 5 DISCUSSION 6 CONCLUSION 9 REFERENCES 11 INTRODUCTION Without any doubts, the man of today and the world of today are entirely different from the first man on earth and the face of the earth when human civilization began. Over these past th ousands of years, human growth and development has taken place exponentially. However, at the other side of the picture, this development and progress have to the human civilization with strings attached to it (Moran, pp. 54-59, 2011). Global warming and climate change has already started to effect the environment and atmosphere of the earth and it appears that it would not be long before we witness drastic effects of this climate change. It is time that people should ask themselves one simple question that is Ã¢â¬Å"When we leave this world, would we be able to provide it to our coming generation in the same condition (if not better) in which we received it from our forefathers (Burroughs, pp. 58-59, 2005). Saudi Arabia is one of those countries, which has remained in the spotlight as the Ã¢â¬Å"bad guyÃ¢â¬ for obstructing and delaying all the resolutions, major movements, and collective global level actions taken for fighting with global warming and environmental destruction. S audi Arabian administration believes that by doing so it is Ã¢â¬Å"protecting its own interestsÃ¢â¬ like every other country (Beniston, pp. 26, 2002). This paper is an attempt to shed some light on the fact that Ã¢â¬Å"why Saudi Arabia should care about Climate ChangeÃ¢â¬ . METHODS This research paper will mainly rely on the secondary sources such as books, journals, articles, previously conducted researches, facts, figures, statistics, and others. However, it has been ensured that the data and information, which is being used, is reliable and authentic. RESULTS With a glance at the available secondary data about the topic, there are many reasons why the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia should be concerned about the environmental issues and climate change. Important here to note is that a shift from high
Thursday, October 31, 2019
CONTEMPORARY CASES IN PUBLIC POLICY - Essay Example The need to have public policy comes as a result of various events that have culminated or are likely to lead to future problems among the public. Public policy in this case gives measure and courses of action that ought to be taken in order to prevent similar issues from occurring (Howlett and Perl 2009). The United States of America has had a huge share of both internal and external problems that have necessitated creation of public policies to help individuals deal with emerging issues in the contemporary world. One of the most recent issues the American government has had to deal with is terrorism. The government has experienced terrorism attacks and threats to that effect from various extremist groups (Bacchi, 2009). The most recent round of attacks was the bombing of the World Trade Center in New York, commonly known as the twin towers, and the Pentagon on September 11th, 2001. There have been other threats of similar terrorist attacks recurring in the near future on American c itizens on the American soil as well as those in other countries considered to be allies of the US. Since the twin tower attacks on September eleventh 2001 in the United States of America, terrorism has been a very delicate issue all over the world specifically in the United States of America. In fact it is safe to say that it has been one of the biggest issues given attention by the United States of America in preventing such attacks on American soil. This has resulted in the government of the United States of America Adopting policies in a measure to combat terrorism (Le Grand, J 2003). Such policies include the surveillance policy adopted by the United States of America Government. However, in the adoption and implementation of this policy there have been various issues that surround it prompting for the need of reforms in the United States Surveillance policy (Human Rights watch, 2013). In the wake of the these terrorist attacks, the American government perceived the establishme nt of domestic surveillance policy as the best way of planning and preparing and responding to any future threats or acts of terrorism. The impact of this policy has been very huge among the citizens and various interest groups. In order to make the policy effective, several pieces of legislation had to be passed, including the USA patriot Act of 2001 and the Homeland Security Act (2002) among others alongside the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978 that has undergone various amendments to make it responsive to contemporary issues in terrorism. The main aim of FISA is to collect foreign intelligence information, that is, the information which is necessary in protecting America and its allies from attacks or sabotage by other foreign countries or groups (Considine, 2005). The Patriot Act of 2001 empowered the federal government through its agencies to collect and analyze private data and information about American citizens and analyze it so as to detect any informati on linked to terrorists. The Act also gave the president more powers to act against any terrorist groups that was deemed a security threat to America and its citizens. There are various issues involved in this move by the government to access private information of its citizens. Proponents of the move argue that it is necessary because it enables the government to
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Progress Can Kill - Essay Example I know that it is tempting to assume that we can solve the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s oil shortage problems by exploiting the territory occupied by this indigenous population. However, the main issue is whether or not we can do this without exploiting the rights and dignity of this indigenous population. Let us first consider the rights and dignity of this indigenous population. They have been occupying this territory for centuries, not ten or thirty years. Mostly in the world, when an individual occupies a home or a piece of land for 12 years without an objection from the true owner, the state recognizes and protects the occupantÃ¢â¬â¢s right to claim and use the property absolutely as he or she wishes. Can we honestly deny that this indigenous tribe does not enjoy the same right, continued and unmolested, to occupy their territory? I would take this step further and argue that given the long and continued occupation of it by the indigenous tribe, it is not only our legal, but also our moral responsibility to protect and recognize their right to claim and use that territory absolutely and free of outside influences and intrusions. This is not just a question of the right to occupancy. This is also about the protection of the universal human rights. In particular, this tribe has adapted itself to a particular way of living and preservation consistent with their animistic religious beliefs. As members of the UN we have pledged that no state shall disrespect the religious beliefs of the individual. How then can we justify even asking this tribe to move aside and allow us to exploit their territory for the purpose of looking for oil? Let us consider the Holy City of Mecca. What if we think suddenly that the Holy City of Mecca most likely sits on untapped oil reserves. Could we in good conscience approach Muslims in the holy city and talk to them about the possibility of turning their city upside down for oil exploration purposes? I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think that we would even cons ider taking this approach because we respect the right of religious organizations to practice their religion as long as that practice does not involve activity causing harm to others. On the contrary, far from causing harm to others, this indigenous people have preserved the rain forest at the time when concerns about the destruction of the rain forests globally have been a major issue for environmentalists. We should, therefore, be celebrating the fact that this tribe has preserved the rain forest and not think of ways that we can deplete yet another portion of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s rain forest. While we are considering the possibility of oil exploration in this particular area, let us also consider the dignity of this tribe. The dignity of indigenous people has been assaulted throughout our history. Colonial and imperial powers have mercilessly uprooted indigenous people, exploited their territories and with the total disregard for their right to self-determination have left them wit hout dignity and without their own system of governance. Unfortunately, history dictates that indigenous people have a long history of exploitation and injustice. Do we want to stop the cycle of exploitation or do we want to re-establish it? The UN International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights informs that we have a duty to protect the right of indigenous population to self-determina
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Comparison Of Parmenides And Heraclitus Philosophy Essay At the first sight Heraclitus and Parmenides uphold the opposite principles, with their doctrines being in dramatic contrast, while the former affirms change, becoming and cyclic recurrence of things and the latter denies their existence. For Heraclitus true being is circular and transforms into not-being, life turns into death and the change that occurs is eternal and cyclical, it truly is (Graham). While for Parmenides true being is motionless and static, it does not change behind the appearance of change. Both philosophers indirectly abolished death by stamping becoming with the seal of being (McFarlane). But, actually, Parmenides and Heraclitus asserted the One. They merely applied to different approaches to teach the same things. Heraclitus affirmed that diverse appearances change, therefore opposites exist in interconnection, depend on each other and are in unity. He conceived a unity of opposites and accepted becoming, while Parmenides refuted opposites, accentuated being and claimed: Being is ungenerated and indestructible, whole, of one kind and unwavering and complete. Nor was it, nor will it be, since now it is, all together, one, continuous. Hereby, different appearances of reality do not truly change, because they so not exist. Parmenides considered that change is impossible, as everything is staying the same, being one single static element, but his opponent, Heraclitus, on the contrary, affirmed that everything is in constant flux, it is changing and his statement everything flows and you cannot step into one and the same river twice have become phrases. He argued that one cannot step twice into the same river, nor touch mortal substance twice in the same condition. By the speed of change, it scatters, and gathers again, so the river will be different every time it is regarded (Graham). Claiming that motion is change, Heraclitus became known for his philosophy of universal flux and fire that, according to him, was the basic material of the world, as well as his controversial theory of coinciding opposites. The philosopher is considered to be independent of a definite school, as this heritage is multilayered and comprises elements of material monism and scientific cosmology, metaphysics and rationalism, but he definitely was a revolutionary whose works despite they were profoundly studied remain controversial and challenging to interpret (Graham). The Greek philosopher presents uses the inductive method by means of which he wants the others to understand the world, he habitually presents a simple situation giving a concrete image, hereby he enables readers to educate themselves. To convey his beliefs more fruitfully Heraclitus uses such stylistic devices as chiasmus and alliteration in his speeches in defense of the theory. The philosopher diligently reiterates that his readers will not understand his message, but he promises to try to explain them everything he is able to see to: distinguish each thing according to its nature and show how it is (Graham). The form in which Heraclitus presents his work is essential for understanding its essence, he uses the technique of verbal complexity and syntactical ambiguity, Charles Kahn, for instance, characterizes his style with two words linguistic density and resonance. With his style similar to Hesoid and the Orphics Parmenides is supposed to have written only one work entitled On Nature that is unfortunately preserved only in fragments, though it originally extended to about eight hundred verses. Parmenides broke the prose tradition by writing it in hexameter verse and was widely quoted by the later authors who kept it for the future generations. The philosopher speaks in support of his principles in the Proem that has a number of interpretation variants and is regarded by contemporary scholars in the aspect of the strict monism, logical-dialectics, meta-principle etc. The work deals with the goddess who must reveal the two ways to Parmenides and he should chose the better one. The two ways present his former error and the truth that becomes clear to him. The work consists of two parts, the first one concerns the truth or the true reality and the second deals with the world of illusion, that is the world of senses and opinions. In the fragment 8 t he goddess utters the philosophers principle of the universal statics by claiming: As yet a single tale of a way remains, that it is; and along this path markers are there very many, that What Is isÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ whole and uniform, and still and perfect Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ with the past or the future being meaningless for the reason. Parmenides believed that the reality is and must be in the strictest sense and any alternation in it is not possible. Remarkably, in Parmenidess Proem the goddess criticizes ordinary men for being guided with their senses. Unlike Heraclitus, the thinker judges merely by reason and never trusts the senses. In the human perception the world is nothing but a deceitful show (Palmer). Several other fragments found indicate that Parmenides touched upon the themes of physiology and human thought in his work and claimed that our own selves are deceptive and accentuated subjectivity of individual perception. While Heraclitus also emphasizing human affairs is supposed to be the first humanist, who proves the blindness of humans in his doctrine. Though he believed that humans are frequently incapable of understanding, let alone wisdom, he does not deny the importance of senses and says: The things of which there is sight, hearing, experience, I prefer. The philosopher connected accumulation of wisdom with senses and memory rather than with knowledge, and the latter does not necessarily teach humans understanding. So, in accordance with Heraclitus, people do not learn by experience, as they cannot process the information they perceive, however, humans still exercise self-knowledge and sound thinking. To comprehend his insights one should catch their complexity and discover the unity of the elements (Graham). According to Guthrie, for Parmenides there was no cosmology, as he presented the proofs of the impossibility of the opposites existence. Conceiving the plurality of normal beliefs, the philosopher, however, makes mention of cosmology principles in the fragments 8 and 9 where he discusses light and night, as well as the stars, sun, moon and the earth itself. Commenting on his cosmology, Guthrie remarked that for he philosophy it remains just a dialectical device used for viewing the picture of the physical and sensible world (Palmer). The evidence of that is found in the goddesss words when she characterizes cosmology as: the beliefs of mortals. Contrary to Parmenides, Heraclitus being a cosmologist mentions in his texts the kosmos order describing the world around us, that he identifies with fire. Fire is described in his doctrine as the origin of all, all things are merely manifestations of fire and it is a symbol of change because it is never the same, without change, according to him, there will be no world. The elements are in cosmic balance and undergo the eternal transformations with no single element gaining predominance (Graham). Heraclitus says in his work: The turnings of fire: first sea, and of sea half is earth, half fireburst. Unlike Parmenides, who proved the impossibility of the existence of opposites in his doctrine, Heraclitus entails the coincidence of opposites and discusses their interconnection, saying: Sea is the purest and most polluted water: for fish drinkable and healthy, for men undrinkable and harmful. According to Herclitus, contrary qualities are included into the same thing, he reasons that th e same thing is living and dead at the same time, it is waking and sleeping, young and old (Graham). However, the philosopher accentuates that though the opposites are correlative, they are never identical to each other. But the coincidence of opposites results in contradictions that cannot be avoided by the philosopher. Barnes, for instance, blames the scholar for violating the principles of logic and making knowledge an impossible thing (Graham). Analyzing the philosophers beliefs as those advocating the radical change, we see that Heraclitus flux is a case of the unity of opposites described in his doctrine. But contemporary analysts claim, he cannot be both a believer in radical flux and a monist, so he is definitely a pluralist who urges self-control and moderation and regards the soul as the moral center of human existence (Graham). Despising passion, he admires the power received through self-mastery and self-purification: It is not good for men to get all that they wish to g et. Whatever our desire wishes to get, it purchases at the cost of soul. Parmenides also discusses the behavior of the humans, is interested in the human thought and reasoning, though his discourse on that matter concerns cosmology. The interconnection becomes clearer as he discusses a wide range of natural phenomena. Being a rigid monist, Heraclitus believed in war, he even praised it calling it a guiding force in the world and claiming: War is father of all and king of all; without the conflict we would have only lifeless uniformity. The philosopher as well as Parmenides speaks of God, however, Hercalitus means neither the Greek Gods nor a personal entity. He considers that God exists in every soul and in every single thing in the world. Due to his fire and flux theory he explains the presence of God in everything on earth. While Parmenides suggests that What Is is a god, and what must be must be or exist and must be what it is, not only temporally but also spatially (Palmer). Though one thinks that the universe is static, eternal and motionless, denies change and becoming, another one affirms them and opens new perspectives for the Greek though by introducing his theory of flux and fire, both have influenced the philosophic tradition and challenged the naÃÆ'Ã ¯ve theories of their predecessors by developing more sophisticated ones. Parmenides, being a metaphysical monist, and Heraclitus, rather independent of any ancient theories, a material monist, a scientific cosmologist and a rationalist, have much more in common than it used to be generally recognized. Moreover, Heraclitus is supposed to inspire Parmenides for developing a contrasting theory, so that they could be seen as representatives advocating constant flux and universal stasis.