Thursday, October 31, 2019

CONTEMPORARY CASES IN PUBLIC POLICY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

CONTEMPORARY CASES IN PUBLIC POLICY - Essay Example The need to have public policy comes as a result of various events that have culminated or are likely to lead to future problems among the public. Public policy in this case gives measure and courses of action that ought to be taken in order to prevent similar issues from occurring (Howlett and Perl 2009). The United States of America has had a huge share of both internal and external problems that have necessitated creation of public policies to help individuals deal with emerging issues in the contemporary world. One of the most recent issues the American government has had to deal with is terrorism. The government has experienced terrorism attacks and threats to that effect from various extremist groups (Bacchi, 2009). The most recent round of attacks was the bombing of the World Trade Center in New York, commonly known as the twin towers, and the Pentagon on September 11th, 2001. There have been other threats of similar terrorist attacks recurring in the near future on American c itizens on the American soil as well as those in other countries considered to be allies of the US. Since the twin tower attacks on September eleventh 2001 in the United States of America, terrorism has been a very delicate issue all over the world specifically in the United States of America. In fact it is safe to say that it has been one of the biggest issues given attention by the United States of America in preventing such attacks on American soil. This has resulted in the government of the United States of America Adopting policies in a measure to combat terrorism (Le Grand, J 2003). Such policies include the surveillance policy adopted by the United States of America Government. However, in the adoption and implementation of this policy there have been various issues that surround it prompting for the need of reforms in the United States Surveillance policy (Human Rights watch, 2013). In the wake of the these terrorist attacks, the American government perceived the establishme nt of domestic surveillance policy as the best way of planning and preparing and responding to any future threats or acts of terrorism. The impact of this policy has been very huge among the citizens and various interest groups. In order to make the policy effective, several pieces of legislation had to be passed, including the USA patriot Act of 2001 and the Homeland Security Act (2002) among others alongside the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978 that has undergone various amendments to make it responsive to contemporary issues in terrorism. The main aim of FISA is to collect foreign intelligence information, that is, the information which is necessary in protecting America and its allies from attacks or sabotage by other foreign countries or groups (Considine, 2005). The Patriot Act of 2001 empowered the federal government through its agencies to collect and analyze private data and information about American citizens and analyze it so as to detect any informati on linked to terrorists. The Act also gave the president more powers to act against any terrorist groups that was deemed a security threat to America and its citizens. There are various issues involved in this move by the government to access private information of its citizens. Proponents of the move argue that it is necessary because it enables the government to

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Progress Can Kill Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Progress Can Kill - Essay Example I know that it is tempting to assume that we can solve the world’s oil shortage problems by exploiting the territory occupied by this indigenous population. However, the main issue is whether or not we can do this without exploiting the rights and dignity of this indigenous population. Let us first consider the rights and dignity of this indigenous population. They have been occupying this territory for centuries, not ten or thirty years. Mostly in the world, when an individual occupies a home or a piece of land for 12 years without an objection from the true owner, the state recognizes and protects the occupant’s right to claim and use the property absolutely as he or she wishes. Can we honestly deny that this indigenous tribe does not enjoy the same right, continued and unmolested, to occupy their territory? I would take this step further and argue that given the long and continued occupation of it by the indigenous tribe, it is not only our legal, but also our moral responsibility to protect and recognize their right to claim and use that territory absolutely and free of outside influences and intrusions. This is not just a question of the right to occupancy. This is also about the protection of the universal human rights. In particular, this tribe has adapted itself to a particular way of living and preservation consistent with their animistic religious beliefs. As members of the UN we have pledged that no state shall disrespect the religious beliefs of the individual. How then can we justify even asking this tribe to move aside and allow us to exploit their territory for the purpose of looking for oil? Let us consider the Holy City of Mecca. What if we think suddenly that the Holy City of Mecca most likely sits on untapped oil reserves. Could we in good conscience approach Muslims in the holy city and talk to them about the possibility of turning their city upside down for oil exploration purposes? I don’t think that we would even cons ider taking this approach because we respect the right of religious organizations to practice their religion as long as that practice does not involve activity causing harm to others. On the contrary, far from causing harm to others, this indigenous people have preserved the rain forest at the time when concerns about the destruction of the rain forests globally have been a major issue for environmentalists. We should, therefore, be celebrating the fact that this tribe has preserved the rain forest and not think of ways that we can deplete yet another portion of the world’s rain forest. While we are considering the possibility of oil exploration in this particular area, let us also consider the dignity of this tribe. The dignity of indigenous people has been assaulted throughout our history. Colonial and imperial powers have mercilessly uprooted indigenous people, exploited their territories and with the total disregard for their right to self-determination have left them wit hout dignity and without their own system of governance. Unfortunately, history dictates that indigenous people have a long history of exploitation and injustice. Do we want to stop the cycle of exploitation or do we want to re-establish it? The UN International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights informs that we have a duty to protect the right of indigenous population to self-determina

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Comparison Of Parmenides And Heraclitus Philosophy Essay

Comparison Of Parmenides And Heraclitus Philosophy Essay At the first sight Heraclitus and Parmenides uphold the opposite principles, with their doctrines being in dramatic contrast, while the former affirms change, becoming and cyclic recurrence of things and the latter denies their existence. For Heraclitus true being is circular and transforms into not-being, life turns into death and the change that occurs is eternal and cyclical, it truly is (Graham). While for Parmenides true being is motionless and static, it does not change behind the appearance of change. Both philosophers indirectly abolished death by stamping becoming with the seal of being (McFarlane). But, actually, Parmenides and Heraclitus asserted the One. They merely applied to different approaches to teach the same things. Heraclitus affirmed that diverse appearances change, therefore opposites exist in interconnection, depend on each other and are in unity. He conceived a unity of opposites and accepted becoming, while Parmenides refuted opposites, accentuated being and claimed: Being is ungenerated and indestructible, whole, of one kind and unwavering and complete. Nor was it, nor will it be, since now it is, all together, one, continuous. Hereby, different appearances of reality do not truly change, because they so not exist. Parmenides considered that change is impossible, as everything is staying the same, being one single static element, but his opponent, Heraclitus, on the contrary, affirmed that everything is in constant flux, it is changing and his statement everything flows and you cannot step into one and the same river twice have become phrases. He argued that one cannot step twice into the same river, nor touch mortal substance twice in the same condition. By the speed of change, it scatters, and gathers again, so the river will be different every time it is regarded (Graham). Claiming that motion is change, Heraclitus became known for his philosophy of universal flux and fire that, according to him, was the basic material of the world, as well as his controversial theory of coinciding opposites. The philosopher is considered to be independent of a definite school, as this heritage is multilayered and comprises elements of material monism and scientific cosmology, metaphysics and rationalism, but he definitely was a revolutionary whose works despite they were profoundly studied remain controversial and challenging to interpret (Graham). The Greek philosopher presents uses the inductive method by means of which he wants the others to understand the world, he habitually presents a simple situation giving a concrete image, hereby he enables readers to educate themselves. To convey his beliefs more fruitfully Heraclitus uses such stylistic devices as chiasmus and alliteration in his speeches in defense of the theory. The philosopher diligently reiterates that his readers will not understand his message, but he promises to try to explain them everything he is able to see to: distinguish each thing according to its nature and show how it is (Graham). The form in which Heraclitus presents his work is essential for understanding its essence, he uses the technique of verbal complexity and syntactical ambiguity, Charles Kahn, for instance, characterizes his style with two words linguistic density and resonance. With his style similar to Hesoid and the Orphics Parmenides is supposed to have written only one work entitled On Nature that is unfortunately preserved only in fragments, though it originally extended to about eight hundred verses. Parmenides broke the prose tradition by writing it in hexameter verse and was widely quoted by the later authors who kept it for the future generations. The philosopher speaks in support of his principles in the Proem that has a number of interpretation variants and is regarded by contemporary scholars in the aspect of the strict monism, logical-dialectics, meta-principle etc. The work deals with the goddess who must reveal the two ways to Parmenides and he should chose the better one. The two ways present his former error and the truth that becomes clear to him. The work consists of two parts, the first one concerns the truth or the true reality and the second deals with the world of illusion, that is the world of senses and opinions. In the fragment 8 t he goddess utters the philosophers principle of the universal statics by claiming: As yet a single tale of a way remains, that it is; and along this path markers are there very many, that What Is isà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ whole and uniform, and still and perfect à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ with the past or the future being meaningless for the reason. Parmenides believed that the reality is and must be in the strictest sense and any alternation in it is not possible. Remarkably, in Parmenidess Proem the goddess criticizes ordinary men for being guided with their senses. Unlike Heraclitus, the thinker judges merely by reason and never trusts the senses. In the human perception the world is nothing but a deceitful show (Palmer). Several other fragments found indicate that Parmenides touched upon the themes of physiology and human thought in his work and claimed that our own selves are deceptive and accentuated subjectivity of individual perception. While Heraclitus also emphasizing human affairs is supposed to be the first humanist, who proves the blindness of humans in his doctrine. Though he believed that humans are frequently incapable of understanding, let alone wisdom, he does not deny the importance of senses and says: The things of which there is sight, hearing, experience, I prefer. The philosopher connected accumulation of wisdom with senses and memory rather than with knowledge, and the latter does not necessarily teach humans understanding. So, in accordance with Heraclitus, people do not learn by experience, as they cannot process the information they perceive, however, humans still exercise self-knowledge and sound thinking. To comprehend his insights one should catch their complexity and discover the unity of the elements (Graham). According to Guthrie, for Parmenides there was no cosmology, as he presented the proofs of the impossibility of the opposites existence. Conceiving the plurality of normal beliefs, the philosopher, however, makes mention of cosmology principles in the fragments 8 and 9 where he discusses light and night, as well as the stars, sun, moon and the earth itself. Commenting on his cosmology, Guthrie remarked that for he philosophy it remains just a dialectical device used for viewing the picture of the physical and sensible world (Palmer). The evidence of that is found in the goddesss words when she characterizes cosmology as: the beliefs of mortals. Contrary to Parmenides, Heraclitus being a cosmologist mentions in his texts the kosmos order describing the world around us, that he identifies with fire. Fire is described in his doctrine as the origin of all, all things are merely manifestations of fire and it is a symbol of change because it is never the same, without change, according to him, there will be no world. The elements are in cosmic balance and undergo the eternal transformations with no single element gaining predominance (Graham). Heraclitus says in his work: The turnings of fire: first sea, and of sea half is earth, half fireburst. Unlike Parmenides, who proved the impossibility of the existence of opposites in his doctrine, Heraclitus entails the coincidence of opposites and discusses their interconnection, saying: Sea is the purest and most polluted water: for fish drinkable and healthy, for men undrinkable and harmful. According to Herclitus, contrary qualities are included into the same thing, he reasons that th e same thing is living and dead at the same time, it is waking and sleeping, young and old (Graham). However, the philosopher accentuates that though the opposites are correlative, they are never identical to each other. But the coincidence of opposites results in contradictions that cannot be avoided by the philosopher. Barnes, for instance, blames the scholar for violating the principles of logic and making knowledge an impossible thing (Graham). Analyzing the philosophers beliefs as those advocating the radical change, we see that Heraclitus flux is a case of the unity of opposites described in his doctrine. But contemporary analysts claim, he cannot be both a believer in radical flux and a monist, so he is definitely a pluralist who urges self-control and moderation and regards the soul as the moral center of human existence (Graham). Despising passion, he admires the power received through self-mastery and self-purification: It is not good for men to get all that they wish to g et. Whatever our desire wishes to get, it purchases at the cost of soul. Parmenides also discusses the behavior of the humans, is interested in the human thought and reasoning, though his discourse on that matter concerns cosmology. The interconnection becomes clearer as he discusses a wide range of natural phenomena. Being a rigid monist, Heraclitus believed in war, he even praised it calling it a guiding force in the world and claiming: War is father of all and king of all; without the conflict we would have only lifeless uniformity. The philosopher as well as Parmenides speaks of God, however, Hercalitus means neither the Greek Gods nor a personal entity. He considers that God exists in every soul and in every single thing in the world. Due to his fire and flux theory he explains the presence of God in everything on earth. While Parmenides suggests that What Is is a god, and what must be must be or exist and must be what it is, not only temporally but also spatially (Palmer). Though one thinks that the universe is static, eternal and motionless, denies change and becoming, another one affirms them and opens new perspectives for the Greek though by introducing his theory of flux and fire, both have influenced the philosophic tradition and challenged the naÃÆ' ¯ve theories of their predecessors by developing more sophisticated ones. Parmenides, being a metaphysical monist, and Heraclitus, rather independent of any ancient theories, a material monist, a scientific cosmologist and a rationalist, have much more in common than it used to be generally recognized. Moreover, Heraclitus is supposed to inspire Parmenides for developing a contrasting theory, so that they could be seen as representatives advocating constant flux and universal stasis.

Friday, October 25, 2019

The Arab Conquest of the Central Asia Essay -- History, Muslim Populat

The Arab Conquest of the Central Asia was a significant event which impacted on the whole region at the beginning of the eighth century. Abu Ja’far Muhammad al-Tabari was one of the historians who described this conquest for the Muslim population later in ninth century by using different accounts (p. 16). His text is useful for the evaluation of Qutayba’s conquests of Central Asia and can be compared with the same century’s Persian historian al-Baladhuri (p. 11) and his description of the Arab Conquest. This excerpt can be regarded as relevant to the Silk Roads Survey due to the fact that it reflects in detail all aspects of past events, and emphasizes their historical importance. Firstly, the author refers to accounts from various sources (p.16) and describes in detail what happened during the seizure of Sogda. Secondly, when al-Tabari narrates about the events occurred in this region he uses direct quotations of the Arab conquerors and Sogdian defenders. For instance, when Sogdians asked Fergana kings for the support (p.17) al-Tabari demonstrates the full reflection of things happ...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Religion and Environmental Ethics

RELS5149 Religion and Envirnomental Ethics Student#1155012742 – Li Wai Tat, Victor Does Christianity have a â€Å"Burden of Guilt† in our Ecological Crisis? Introduction and Methods In 1967, Lynn White Jr. , published a paper in Science (Vol 155, 1967, pp 1203-1207) â€Å"The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis†, which was to become a seminal work on the relationship of Ecology and Christianity and had since then provoked enumerous debates on the topic.In the paper he wrote â€Å"Christianity bears a huge burden of guilt† and concludes that â€Å"Hence we shall continue to have a worsening ecologic crisis until we reject the Christian axiom that nature has no reason for existence save to serve man. † White depicted Western Christianity as seeing the world existing primarily for the benefit of man, and man, bearing God's image and sharing in great measure God's transcendence of nature, exploit nature for his proper ends according to God's will. This thesis of White shall be referred to as â€Å"Dominion Hypothesis† for ease of identification in this paper. But are the claims in his Dominion Hypothesis valid? Does Christianity bear a burden of guilt for the ecological crisis of the world? The purpose of this paper is to assess the strength of his thesis by firstly analysing what the biblical scriptures and theologians have to say with regard to the relationship of God, man and the environment.Next the symptoms and origins of our ecological crisis are examined, after which their ties with Western Christianity are assessed to determine whether the later has causal relationship with the former. Finally, after arriving at the conclusion, some recommendations are presented. 1 White's Thesis White's thesis can briefly be summarized as: â€Å"All forms of life modify their contexts, and the human race has in one sense simply done this more than others. However, the human impact on the environment, whilst frequently detrime ntal in the past, was given an added impetus by Christianity in its Westernized form.Western society, as a product of Westernized Christianity, inherits an exploitative attitude to the natural world which is the key to our present ecological crisis. † (Richardson, 1998) . White depicted Western Christianity as seeing the world existing primarily for the benefit of man, and it is according to God's will that man exploit nature for his proper ends. Biblical verses that align to the Dominion Hypothesis Arguably the following passages from the Bible are aligned to the Dominion Hypothesis and are most frequently cited by ecology critics of the Bible. Then God said, ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of trhe air, and over the the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thinng that creeps upon the earth' So god created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. And God blessed them, and God said to them ‘Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over every living thing that moves upon the earth. And God said, ‘Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit; you shall have them for food. ‘ † (Gen. 1:26-29) â€Å"Yet thou has made him little less than God, and dost crown him with glory and honor. Thous hast given him dominion over the works of thy hands; thous hast put all things under his feet; all sheep and oxen, and also the beasts of the field, the birds of the air, and the fish of the sea, whatever passes along the paths of the sea. † (Ps. 8:5-8) 2 And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said to them, ‘Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth. The fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every bird of the air, upon everything that creeps on the ground and all the fish of the sea; into your hand they are delivered. Every moving thing that lives shall be food for you; and as I gave you the green plants, I give you everything. † (Gen. 9:1-3) â€Å"You have made them to be a kingdom and priests serving our God, and they will reign on earth† (Rev. 5:10).According to exegeses by theology scholar (Hiebert, 1996), â€Å"the term ‘dominion,' from the Hebrew verb â€Å"radah†, implies that it grants humans the right and responsibility to rule, to govern the rest of creation. It connotes a hierarchy of power and authority in which the human race is positioned above the rest of the natural world, although the verb radah does not itself define how this dominion is to be exercised, whether benevolently or malevolently. The laws of Leviticus, when they stipulate that household servants are not to be *ruled* harshly (Lev. 25:43, 46, 53), imply t hat this kind of dominion may be kind and humane.Yet the use of radah in the context of international relations, where it is more commonly employed, carries a decidedly more antagonistic tinge, since it signifies rule over one*s enemies. It occurs frequently in descriptions of military conquest, where it is paired with such verbs as *destroy* (Num. 24:19) and *strike down* (Lev. 26:17; Isa. 14:6). When used of the Israelite king, radah always refers to dominion over his enemies, not to rule over his own Israelite subjects, for which the verb malak, *reign,* is the usual term. Similar conclusions may be drawn about the phrase *subdue the earth* in Gen. :28. The verb *subdue,* from the Hebrew kavash, depicts a hierarchical relationship in which humans are positioned above the earth and are granted power and control over it. The verb kavash is even more forceful than radah, describing the actual act of subjugation, of forcing another into a subordinate position. It is used for military conquest, where the same phrase used in Gen. 1:28, *subdue the earth/land,* can be employed to depict the destruction and occupation of conquered territory (Num. 32:22, 29). It is also used of the king*s forcing his people into slavery against God*s wishes (Jer. 4:11, 16), and of rape (Esther 7:8; Neh. 5:5). In many of these cases, the abuse {19} of power is patently obvious. † 3 Biblical verses that align to the Eco-Friendly perspective On the other hand, the following verses can be interpreted as being aligned to an EcoFriendly view:†Let the heavens be glad, and let the earth rejoice; let the sea roar, and all that fills it; let the field exult, and everything in it! Then shall all the trees of the forest sing for joy before the LORD, for he comes, for he comes to judge the earth. He will judge the world in righteousness, and the peoples in his faithfulness. (Psalm 96:11-13) â€Å"Praise the LORD! Praise the LORD from the heavens; praise him in the heights! Praise hi m, all his angels; praise him, all his hosts! Praise him, sun and moon, praise him, all you shining stars! Praise him, you highest heavens, and you waters above the heavens! Let them praise the name of the LORD! For he commanded and they were created. And he established them forever and ever; he gave a decree, and it shall not pass away. a Praise the LORD from the earth, you great sea creatures and all deeps, fire and hail, snow and mist, stormy wind fulfilling his word! Mountains and all hills, fruit trees and all cedars! Beasts and all livestock, creeping things and flying birds! Kings of the earth and all peoples, princes and all rulers of the earth! Young men and maidens together, old men and children! Let them praise the name of the LORD, for his name alone is exalted; his majesty is above earth and heaven. † (Psalm 148:1-13) *When you besiege a city a long time, to make war against it in order to capture it, you shall not destroy its trees by swinging an axe against them ; for you may eat from them, and you shall not cut them down.For is the tree of the field a man, that it should [m]be besieged by you? Only the trees which you known are not fruit trees you shall destroy and cut down, that you may construct siegeworks against the city that is making war with you until it falls. † (Deuteronomy 20:19-20) *When you enter the land and plant any kind of fruit tree, regard its fruit as forbidden. For three years you are to consider it forbidden; it must not be eaten. In the fourth year all its fruit will be holy, an offering of praise to the Lord. But in the fifth year you may eat its fruit.In this way your harvest will be increased. I am the Lord your God. † (Leviticus 19:2325) â€Å"You shall not let your cattle breed with a different kind; you shall not sow your field with two kinds of seed; nor shall there come upon you a garment of cloth made of two kinds of stuff. † (Leviticus 19:19) â€Å"For six years you shall sow your land an d gather in its yield; but the seventh year you shall let it rest and lie fallow, that the poor of your people may eat; and what they leave the wild beasts may eat. † (Exodus 23: 10-11) 5 â€Å"The nations were angry, and your wrath has come.The time has come for judging the dead, and for rewarding your servants the prophets and your people who revere your name, both great and small * and for destroying those who destroy the earth. * (Rev 11:18) â€Å"For true and righteous are his judgments: for he hath judged the great whore, which did corrupt the earth with her fornication, and hath avenged the blood of his servants at her hand. † (Rev 19:2) â€Å"They will neither harm nor destroy on all my holy mountain, for the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea. (Isaiah 11:9) â€Å"The wolf and the lamb will feed together, and the lion will eat straw like the ox, but dust will be the serpent's food. They will neither harm nor destro y on all my holy mountain,† says the LORD. † (Isaiah 65:25) Theology scholars commenting on this view of nature of the Old Testament wrote : â€Å"†¦ It is therefore fair to conclude that nature is far from ‘de-animated' in Biblical thought. † (Wybrow, 1990), â€Å"The natural world may not be seen as sacred or divine in the Bible, but it is certainly not dead, lifeless, and outside the divine moral framework†¦ here are no scriptures suggesting that nature was viewed as dead matter to be manipulated by man.. † (Kinsley, 1995). Referring to the theme of the kingdom of God running through the New Testament, Zerbe (1992) argues that the New Testament has significant ecological implications, he explained: â€Å"Isaiah*s vision of restored humanity and nature climaxes with the statement that there will no longer be any hurt or destruction in creation (Isa. 11:9; 65:25). And John*s vision of judgment states that those who destroy the earth will t hemselves be destroyed (Rev. 11:18; 19:2).It is noteworthy that the prophetic critique of Rome in Rev. 17:1-19:4 closely connects greed and the earth*s destruction: the insatiable desire for consumption and wealth is what results in the destruction of people and the earth. † The corresponding passages are as quoted above. 6 Alternative view: Dominion Theology in Genesis 1 vs. Dependence Theology in Genesis 2 And lastly, but most importantly, consider the following two verses, both from Genesis 2:†Then the Lord God formed a man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being. (Genesis 2:7) â€Å"The Lord God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it. † (Genesis 2:15) What is very important to the discussion in this paper is that according to Hiebert (1996), as evident in the above verses, Genesis 2 presents an alternative to the dominion theology of Genesis 1, which he calls dependence theology. His thesis being that the first human is made of the same arable soil as are all of other forms of life; and the divine breath into which his nostrils blown is the same with which all the animals live and breathe (Gen. :7; 7:22). The role of the human in the earth described is not that of mastery but of servanthood. In this account of creation, the theology of the human place in creation is not a theology of dominion but a theology of dependence (Hiebert, 1996). This theology is evident in other parts of Scripture, examples including Psalm 104 and the Book of Job (McKibben,1994). According to Hiebert: â€Å"†¦ In this tradition (Genesis 2), the human being is positioned very differently within the world of nature.Here the archetypal human is made not in the image of God but out of topsoil, out of the arable land that was cultivated by Israelite farmers (Gen. 2:7). As a result of this kind of creation, humans hold no distinctive position among liv ing beings, since plants and animals also were produced from this same arable soil (2:9, 19). Moreover, the role assigned humans within creation in this story is not to rule (radah) and to subdue (kavash) but rather to {23} *serve* (avad; Gen. 2:15; 3:23). The Hebrew term avad is properly translated *till* in these verses (NRSV), since it clearly refers to the cultivation of arable land.But avad is in fact the ordinary Hebrew verb *serve,* used of slaves serving masters and of humans serving God (Gen. 12:16; Exod. 4:23). â€Å", the conflicts of Genesis I and Genesis 2 notwithstanding, there are lots of thesis arguing that there is no inconsistency between the two chapters and the ouvert differences are due to different ways in recapitulation only . (Young, 1960),(Archer, 1964),(Kitchen,1966) On another plane of our discussion, we shall now turn to a brief discussion of the historical origins of our ecological crisis. 7 The Historical Origins of our Ecological CrisisThere is genera l consensus that the planet earth is heading towards environmental catastrophe due to alarming development at different fronts: the green house effect, acid rain, damage to ozone layer, deforestation, loss of biodiversity, chemical pollution, freshwater shortage, etc. , amongst others. (Magdoff & Foster, 2011).. But how did all these pollutions started? according to Thorsheim (2006), in his book â€Å"The Invention of Pollution†, it all started with the use of fossil energy, which was conducive to the Industrial Revolution.The first largescale commercial use of fossil energy was coal in Britain in the 1800's, which he referred to as a â€Å"Faustian bargain† for Britain, since on the one hand it helped to bring tremendous wealth, advance and power to the country, whilst on the other coal also filled the air with immense smoke and acidic vapors, which was one of the origins of what we now call the â€Å"green house effect† and â€Å"acid rain†. Fossil oil as energy had also been popularized ever since Edwin L. Drake drilled the first oil well in 1853, but the impact on the environment is equally as detrimental as Coal, if not more so.The fossil energy application was conducive to the Industrial Revolution, and the Industrial Revolution had led to the advance in comfort, convenience and enjoyment, from dwelling comfort to transport convenience to material needs, leading to the abundance and later overabundance in supply of products. Consumerism in the past decades had eventually been invented in order to â€Å"help† us to recognize our needs, and due to the needs for growth of enterprises, some products have also began to be designed with â€Å"built-in obsolescence†.All these initiatives had contributed to the generation of ever more wastes than in the centuries before the industrial revolution, much more than can be â€Å"sinked† by the earth, which contributed to the chemical pollution of soil, water, which has also altered the bio-diversity of the Earth. 8 Ever since the Industrial Revolution, the consumption of energy has experienced exponential growth (see figure 1. 1). Concomitantly, different kind of detrimental impacts had been inflicted upon the ecology of the earth (see figure 1. 2).As an in-depth analysis of our ecological crisis is out of the scope of this paper, focus is now centred on the â€Å"origin† of the crisis, viz. the advent of fossil energy application, which shall be discussed below. Some key developments relating to fossil energy application:1665 Invention of the first modern industrial steam engine by English inventor Edward Somerset which can use wood or coal as fuel 1794 First produce of Coal Gas by William Murdoch 1853 First refinement of Kerosene by Abraham Gesner 1859 Drilling of first Oil Well by Edwin Drake 1859 Building of the first practical self-combustion engine by Etienne Lenoir Religious Background of the Inventors / Innovators Astonishingly, wh at the above key developments have in common, according to research by the author, is that all the inventors / innovators were Judeao-Christian in religious belief, as can be listed below according to extant data. Inventor/Innovator Place of Birth Religion Edward Somerset (1601-67) Monmouthshire, Britain Roman Catholic William Murdoch (1754 – 1839) Cumnock, Scotland Roman Catholic Abraham Gesner (1797-1864) Nova Scotia, Canada Protestant Christian Edwin Drake (1819-1880) New York, U. S. A. Jewish Jean-Joseph-Etienne Lenoir (1822-1900)Mussy-la-Ville, Belgium Roman Catholic However, just as one cannot say that the inventions or innovations in fossil energy application has been due to Western Christianity, as otherwise one will fall into the â€Å"post-hoc ergo procter hoc† fallacy, it is likewise not valid to attribute the ecological crisis directly to Western Christianity. However, If we put the question conversely by asking that if the inventors/innovators were panthei stic, believing that the nature is sacred in itself and should be reverred, then it is highly unlikely that the inventions/innnovations had been conjured and accomplished by them.Science and Christianity It has been argued that science and christianity are coherent to each other, A British Scientist, Robert Clark, once said â€Å"†¦ we may interpret the fact scientific development has only occurred in a Christian culture. The ancients had brains as good as ours. In all civilizations, Babylonia, Egypt, Greece, India, Rome, Persia, China and so on, science developed to a certain point and then stopped. It is easy to argue speculatively that science might have been able to develop in the absence of Christianity, but in fact, it never did. And no wonder.For the non*Christian world felt there was something ethically wrong about science. In Greece, this conviction was enshrined in the legend of Prometheus, the fire*bearer and prototype scientist who stole fire from heaven thus incur ring the wrath of the Gods. † 10 Consider also these statements from renowned scientists; William Thomson: â€Å"Do not be afraid to be free thinkers. If you think strongly enough, you will be forced by science to the belief in God. † Isaac Newton: â€Å"This most beautiful system of the sun, planets and comets could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being†¦ , Stephen Hawking:†In fact, if one considers the possible constants and laws that could have emerged, the odds against a universe that produced life like ours are immense. † Conclusion This paper has attempted to examine the hypothesis of Lynn White's that Christianity bears significant responsibility for the earth's ecological crisis. The author has attempted to typologize and quote verses from the scriptures, exegeses and writings of theologians on the Biblical scriptures depicting the relationship of God, man and nature.Whilst according to the Dominion the ological perspective as discussed above, the hierarchal relationship of God->Man->Nature (see figure 1. 3) is apparent, in the Dependence theological perspective, the hierarchal relationship of God->Man ; God -> Nature (see figure 1. 4) is also evident. God God Man Man Nature Nature Figure 1. 3 The Dominion Perspective Figure 1. 4 The Dependence Perspective Other verses as listed under the section â€Å"Passages that echo Eco-Friendly† also act as a counter-argument for the Dominion hypothesis.It would seem therefore that White's hypothesis that â€Å"†¦ Western Christianity sees the world existing primarily for the benefit of man† and therefore â€Å"Christianity bears a huge burden of guilt† is not grounded solidly, because as mentioned above, there are many verses which encourage man to be benign to our environment, and conversely, there is no single passage asking man to abuse nature for his primarily benefit only. However, if White argued that â€Å"C hristians bears a burden of guilt†, then it is less reputable, as explained in the next paragraph. 11If one concurs that scientific thinking is coherent to Christian belief, as discussed above, and like White argues in his paper, Western Christianity has been contributory in promoting modern science and technological advance, and from the standpoint of the analysing of advent of fossil energy as the origin of our ecological crisis, which does have tremendous detrimental impacts to our environment, it seems evident that Christians do have a direct linkage to the inventions and innovations leading to the mass scale use of fossil energy, the detrimental origin to our ecological system. RecommendationsIt can be said that with subtlety in the Biblical scriptures, interpretations are often contingent upon the context and the wisdom of the readers, as inspired at different times. What can be said is that given the state of development before the advent of sciences, man had been under the perpetual threats of nature, from attacks by animals, storms, sickness to famines and other disasters. The Dominion theological perspective no doubt inspired man to develop creative thinking about mastering the nature for the betterment of his lifelihood and survival, lacking which man might still be living rather primitively.The advent of sciences and most notably the Industrial Revolution can be depicted as the epitome of this mentality. As our civilization, technology and wisdom progresses, we should now be in a position to recognize that a Dominion mentality to the nature is detrimental to our environment and it is time that we revisit the scriptures to investigate whether we have overlooked an alternative theology in the Bible for seeing our relationship with nature-the Dependence approach, treating the nature as equals of ours, in which we serve god to ensure its goodness, and ensuring its long term sustainability to prepare for the â€Å"Kingdom of God†. 2 Bibliog raphy Lynne White Jr (1967), ‘The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis', reproduced in John Barr (ed), The Environmental Handbook (London: Ballantine/Friends of the Earth, 1971) pp 3-16. David Kinsley, Ecology and Religion: Ecological Spirituality in Cross-Cultural Perspective (Englewood Cliffs, N. J. : Prentice Hall, 1995) Richard Cameron Wybrow â€Å"The Bible, Baconism, and Mastery over Nature: The Old Testament and Its Moderrn Misreading† (Ph.D disserrtation, McMaster University, Hamillton Ont. Canada, 1990) p. 206 Theodore Hiebert, Professor of Old Testament at McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, Illinois. , Direction (Winnipeg, MB), 1996 Gordon Zerbe, Assistant Professor of New Testament at Canadian Mennonite Bible College, Winnipeg, Manitoba. , Direction (Winnipeg, MB), 1992 Howard Snyder, Liberating the Church: The Ecology of Church and Kingdom (Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 1983) 45-51.Young, Edward J. (1960) An Introduction to the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co. ). Archer, Gleason (1964), A Survey of Old Testament Introduction (Chicago: Moody Press). Kitchen, Kenneth (1966), Ancient Orient and Old Testament (London: Tyndale Press). Thorsheim, Peter (2006), Inventing Pollution: Coal, Smoke and Culture in Britain since 1800 13

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Market Segmentation Notes

Definition of ‘Market Segmentation' A marketing term  referring to  the aggregating of prospective buyers into groups (segments) that have common needs and will respond similarly to a marketing action. Market segmentation enables companies to target different categories of consumers who perceive the full value of certain products and services differently from one another. Generally three criteria  can be used to identify  different market segments: 1) Homogeneity (common needs within segment) 2) Distinction (unique from other groups) 3) Reaction (similar response to market) Investopedia explains ‘Market Segmentation'For example, an athletic footwear company might have market segments for basketball players and long-distance runners. As distinct groups, basketball players and long-distance runners will respond to very different advertisements. Market segmentation is a marketing strategy that involves dividing a broad target market into subsets of consumers who have common needs and applications for the relevant goods and services. Depending on the specific characteristics of the product, these subsets may be divided by criteria such as age and gender, or other distinctions, like location or income.Marketing campaigns can then be designed and implemented to target these specific customer segments. Why Segment? One of the main reasons for using market segmentation is to help companies to better understand the needs of a specific customer base. Mass marketing assumes that all customers are the same and will respond to the same advertising. By looking at ways in which potential customer groups are different from each other, the marketing message can be better targeted to the needs and wants of those people.Often, dividing consumers by clearly defined criteria will help the company identify other applications for their products that may not have been obvious before. These revelations often help the company target a larger audience in that same dem ographic classification, improving market share among a specific base. Segmenting the market can also serve to identify smaller groups of people who make up their own, previously unknown subsets, further improving the overall efficiency of the company's marketing efforts.Segmentation Strategies According to experts, in order to be a good market segment, a group should meet five criteria: 1. It should be possible to identify and measure it, 2. it should be big enough to be worth the effort, 3. it should be easy to reach it, 4. it should not change quickly, 5. and it should be responsive. Market segmentation strategies that meet these criteria can cover wide range of consumer characteristics. Subsets may be defined by basic demographics like age, race, or gender, for example.Other qualities, like educational background or income can also be used, as can location. Some of the potentially most powerful variables by which to segment a market are behavioral ones, including social class, l ifestyle, and interests. In most scenarios, there will be at least a few established customers who fall into more than one category, but marketing strategists normally allow for this phenomenon. In fact, the overlap in criteria among consumers often leads to additional segmentation and requires adjusted marketing strategies.A marketing plan that targets people who fall into several groups — like women over 30 who earn a high income, for example — may be more successful than one that focuses on just one limited characteristic. Other Benefits Along with playing a role in the development of new marketing approaches, market segmentation can also help a company identify ways to enhance customer loyalty with existing clients. As part of the process of identifying specific groups within the larger client base, the company will often run surveys which encourage customers to suggest ways of improving the company's products or services.This may lead to changes in packaging or ot her similar cosmetic changes that do not necessarily impact the core product, but sometimes making a few simple changes in the appearance sends a clear message to consumers that recognizing their needs is as important to the company as making sales. This demonstration of good might go a long way to strengthen the ties between the consumer and the producer. Market segmentation is not only beneficial to the manufacturer or retailer, but can also have benefits to a consumer as well.People in a particular market segment may get special deals on products as the company focuses on that group, or find that those products are available more widely. When a company responds to consumer feedback, it can mean that those people get changes in composition or packaging that better meet the user's needs. Disadvantages of Market Segmentation One of the biggest disadvantages of this marketing technique is the expense. A great deal of research often needs to be done to correctly identify those subsets that are most important for a company, and this takes time and money.Once the key subsets are identified, different marketing messages usually need to be developed for each. In addition, changing the appearance of a product based on which segment it is being sold to adds to the production costs. If the market isn't segmented effectively, then all this money will be wasted. When the market segments that are identified are too narrow, it may be difficult for a company to be profitable. Niche marketing can work for some industries, but if the tastes of that subset change or a stronger competitor enters the field, a company that has focused too much on the one segment can lose its customer base quickly.Targeting smaller segments also means that potential consumers outside of those groups may be ignored and their business lost. The Concept of Market Segmentation Market segmentation is the division of a market into different groups of customers with distinctly similar needs and product/s ervice requirements. Or to put it another way, market segmentation is the division of a mass market into identifiable and distinct groups or segments, each of which have common characteristics and needs and display similar responses to marketing actions.Market segmentation was first defined as ‘a condition of growth when core markets have already been developed on a generalised basis to the point where additional promotional expenditures are yielding diminishing returns’ (Smith, 1956). There is now widespread agreement that they form an important foundation for successful marketing strategies and activities (Wind, 1978; Hooley and Saunders, 1993). The purpose of market segmentation is to leverage scarce resources; in other words, to ensure that the elements of the marketing mix, price, distribution, products and promotion, are designed to meet particular needs of different customer groups.Since companies have finite resources it is not possible to produce all possible p roducts for all the people, all of the time. The best that can be aimed for is to provide selected offerings for selected groups of people, most of the time. This process allows organizations to focus on specific customers’ needs, in the most efficient and effective way. As Beane and Ennis (1987) eloquently commented, ‘a company with limited resources needs to pick only the best opportunities to pursue’. The market segmentation concept is related to product differentiation.If you aim at different market segments, you might adapt different variations of your offering to satisfy those segments, and equally if you adapt different versions of your offering, this may appeal to different market segments. Since there is less competition, your approach is less likely to be copied and so either approach will do. An example in the area of fashion retailing might be if you adapt your clothing range so that your skirts are more colourful, use lighter fabrics, and a very shor t hemline, for instance, this styling is more likely to appeal more to younger women.If alternatively, you decide to target older women, then you might need to change the styling of your skirts to suit them by using darker, heavier fabrics, with a longer hemline. This is exactly what Marks and Spencer (M&S) did to attract a younger female shopper into their M&S stores and compete more directly with Next and Debenhams for share of this market. The company launched a range of female clothing called Per Una, and three years on the fashion range has been a huge success reportedly generating annual sales of nearly ? 230 m—more than 10 per cent of the total womenswear sales at M&S.If you start by adapting new product variants, you are using a product differentiation approach. If you start with the customer’s needs, you are using a market segmentation approach. This is illustrated more clearly in Figure 6. 2 using offering rather than product to indicate that the same concept may apply to a service. A relational marketing perspective would replace the marketing mix—the 4Ps —either with the 7Ps (see Chapter 15) or with a discussion of the need to design, develop, and deliver the customer experience (see Chapter 17).The concept of market segmentation was first proposed as an alternative market development technique in imperfectly competitive markets, that is, in markets where there are relatively few competitors selling an identical product. Where there are lots of competitors selling identical products, market segmentation and product differentiation produce similar results as competitors imitate your strategic approach more quickly and product differentiation approaches meet market segment needs more closely. With an increasing proliferation of tastes in modern society, consumers have increased disposable incomes.As a result, marketers have sought to design product and service offerings around consumer demand (market segmentation) more tha n around their own production needs (product differentiation) and they use market research to inform this process (see Market Insight 6. 1 and Chapter 4). Segmentation criteria for consumer markets Segmenting criteria for goods and services markets Kotler and Armstrong define market segmentation as â€Å"dividing a market into distinct groups of buyers who have distinct needs, characteristics, or behaviour and who might require separate products or marketing mixes† (Armstrong and Kotler, 2005: 54).

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Canterbury Tales Women Essays - The Canterbury Tales

The Canterbury Tales' Women Essays - The Canterbury Tales The Canterbury Tales' Women The Canterbury Tales, by Geoffrey Chaucer is a collection of stories told by a group of pilgrims on their way to Thomas a' Becket's tomb in Canterbury. Throughout the stories, women are often portrayed in two opposing ways. The women in these tales are either depicted as pristine and virginal, or as cunning and deceitful. First, women are described as being pristine and virginal. This type of woman is always beautiful and has men vying for her affections. However, she is so pure that it seems she is unattainable. She is not treated like a real person and people never ask her what she wants. This virginal woman is captured in the character of Emily in The Knight's Tale. Emily, who is described by the author as radiant and serene (32) enchants two cousins and cause them to argue over her. Palamon is so love-struck that he states Woman or Goddess, which? I cannot say. (32). He doesn't even know her yet calls her ... my lady, whom I love and serve (34). When Arcite is released, he becomes sick because he can no longer see her. He is described as Thin as a shaft, as dry, with nothing left./His eyes were hollow, grisly to behold,/Fallow his face, like ashes pale and cold (39). When the cousins finally reunite, Palamon claims Emily for his own once again by saying You shall not love my lady Emily./I, no one else, will love her! (45). They are engaged in battle when the king rides by with his wife and Emily. When confronted, Palamon tells the king that Arcite dares love Emily (49), and that he is also in love with Emily the Bright (49). Even though Emily is sitting right there he still doesn't talk directly to her, instead he tells the king. Emily is herself immune to love: she has seen neither of the knights, nor is she aware that they have seen her, much less that they are in love with her (Hallissy 59). Poor virginal Emily knows no more of this affair,/By God, than does a cuckoo or a hare! (51). However, the king tells the cousins to get Ready by battle to decide his claim/ to Emily. (52) without even asking her what she wanted to do. If he had asked her, he would have found out that she wanted to remain a virgin and marry no one. She even prayed that she would be mistress, no, nor wife. (65). However, she was forced to marry Palamon when he won the battle. Secondly, women are described as cunning and deceitful. This type of woman causes her husband nothing but heartache. She is depicted as a liar and a cheater with low morals. She is a woman neither to be trusted nor respected. In many of the stories she makes a fool of her husband by having adulterous affairs. This type of woman is depicted in the Miller's Tale, the Merchant's Tale, and in the character of the Wife of Bath. In the Miller's Tale, Alison who is described as . . a fair young wife, her body as slender/As any weasel's, and as soft and tender; (90) marries an old man named John. John then takes in a lodger by the name of Nicholas. Since there is a big age difference between Alison and her husband, there is an assumption that Alison is sexually unsatisfied and thus easily seducible by a younger and more virile mana man just like Nicholas (Hallissy 77). John foolishly leaves the two at home alone while he goes to Osney. Nicholas seizes this opportunity to make his move: he held her haunches hard (91) and begs her to satisfy him. Immediately: She gave a spring, just like a skittish colt Boxed in a frame for shoeing, and with a jolt Managed in time to wrench her head away. And said, Give over, Nicholas, I say! (91). However, it rapidly becomes clear that Alison consents to Nicholas's advances. In fact, so swift is the courtship that it is clear that Alison is a woman of exceedingly flexible moral standards she is, in modern terms, easy (Hallissy 77). It is not long before another man named Absolon also falls in love with

Monday, October 21, 2019

How To Become a Dermatologist

How To Become a Dermatologist So you want to be a dermatologist. That’s great! Dermatologists are so much more than just the doctors you turn to for acne treatment. They can save lives, bring relief to patients suffering with chronic and uncomfortable conditions, treat rashes and infections, and do a million other things- including skin cancer prevention, education, and treatment. Dermatologists have a range of duties on a daily basis which are as diverse as their patients’ needs. They can work in a hospital setting, a clinical private practice setting, or in a more academic environment. And they can usually get their patient care for a given week accomplished in 30-40 hours, which is less than many other medical fields.Dermatologists make an average of over $300k per year, with some making as much as $385k. It is the third highest paying of the physician specialties. Given that the demand for physicians in general is expected to grow 18% in the next decade or so, it’s a safe bet that dermato logy will continue to be a good field to enter.Required EducationDermatology is one of the most competitive fields out there. Start by getting the best grades you can, and don’t stop until you’re finished school completely. You’ll need a four-year medical degree plus the completion of a three-year residency program in dermatology, which will include board-certification and licensing. The first step in this process is obviously a bachelor’s degree from an accredited institution. Then, just keep working your way through, making sure to perform as well as possible. The better you do, the better position you’ll be in to get a job when you get out of school.No matter what, you’ll have to deal with the USMLE and/or COMLEX exams. Study hard. Once you get to the residency stage, you can decide what you want your practice to look like, and whether you would like to sub-specialize in either Dermatopathology, Pediatric Dermatology, or Procedural Dermat ology. (Subspecialties will typically require an additional exam).Possible Career PathsMost dermatologists work in outpatient settings, though some do work as a team with hospital surgeons, completing rounds, or making emergency assessments. You’ll probably spend the bulk of your time in your own clinical setting.You might wish to consider joining a professional organization to aid with networking, community service, furthering your research, and continuing education/training. Consider joining the American Academy of Dermatology, American Dermatological Association, or the American Society of Dermatology as a start.Start Early!If you’re serious about becoming a dermatologist and you are still in college, take advantage of your summers off to intern or volunteer. Remember this is an incredibly competitive field, so anything you can do to get ahead is good.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Age of Exploration Essay Example for Free (#3)

Age of Exploration Essay ? The age of exploration had many varied effects on the countries involved, mainly Spain, France, and England. By establishing a prosperous empire in South America by conquering the native people, Spain became vastly wealthy off of the gold collected by its native subjects. However, since the native people were dying off rapidly due to the foreign diseases brought over by the Conquistadors, as well as malnutrition and fatigue, Spain and Portugal were the first to introduce slavery to the New World by replacing them with African slaves brought over by Portuguese slave traders. The silver mining by these slaves caused world trade to increase. Often, silver brought to Europe from America was then traded with China and other Asian countries, making silk, porcelain, and Indian spices more prevalent in Europe. Products from America that became popular in Europe included corn, potatoes, pineapples, and sugar cane. Many cultures spread and combined with others: Spanish missionaries converted natives to Christianity, which then combined the new Christian beliefs with the natives’ cultural traditions. Another example, Arabian coffee with American sugar became quite popular throughout Europe. Although saying that anyone who crossed the Atlantic (at least when referring to modern theories) truly discovered America is ridiculous, I believe that the first to do so was Leif Eriksson and his group of Vikings whose settlement was found in Canada. According to the Greenlander saga and the Eric saga, his father, Eric the Red, a Viking outlaw, discovered Greenland. In order to establish himself as a man separate from his father, Leif sailed to the west in order to discover his own land. He sailed west because there had been a rumor in Greenland for the past fifteen years of a merchant sailing from Iceland to Greenland whose ship had been blown off course in a storm. According to the rumor, the merchant claimed that there were three separate lands west of Greenland. Around the year 1000, Leif purchased the merchant’s ship from the story, and obtained directions from the same merchant. He set sail only for a few days, which was reportedly was miserable due to the conditions on the open boat. On this expedition, they were seeking trees, which were scare in Greenland, but abundant in what is now northern Newfoundland, Canada, where the party landed. Leif named the new land Vinland after the wild grapes found there and the wine the grapes produced. Shortly thereafter, the settlers began to erect a settlement and scouted the land. In 1960, the archeologist and set out to find the fabled Vinland, using a four hundred year old Icelandic map and descriptions from the sagas. On the very northern tip of Newfoundland, they came across an area of mounds and ruins near a small town. Because the ruins predated the settlement of the area, the locals had always believed that Native Americans created the mounds. In fact, through almost seven years of painstaking excavations and radiocarbon testing, it was proven that the ruins were of a settlement dating back to the year 1000. Various artifacts found at the site also confirmed its Norse origins. Archeologists have gone so far as to pinpoint which ‘house’ was Leif Eriksson’s, based on size and complexity of the structure. I believe that Leif Eriksson was the first to cross the Atlantic and settle in America because of many factors. The radiocarbon dating of the site which puts it at 1000 C. E. immediately eliminates any of the explorers from the age of exploration, as well as the Chinese in 1492, in addition to the obvious implausibility of traveling above Canada in ice riddled waters in a flimsy wooden vessel. A case could perhaps be made for the merchant in the sagas who started the rumor, but as with all epic stories, the Icelanders who were the ones to transcribe the sagas based on oral stories, may have simply added him in as a fictional supporting character. Because of this and other equally plausible scenarios, I have to concede that Leif Eriksson was the first to reach the New World by crossing the Atlantic. There is confusion among certain people about whether America was colonized because of a desire for more money on the part of England or because the colonists were seeking religious freedom from the Roman Catholic Church. This confusion stems mainly from the watered down version of Jamestown and the Mayflower that we teach students at a young age. While it is true that Puritans did indeed come to the New World seeking religious freedom, the initial desire to colonize America was all about the desire for wealth. Because of Spain’s conquests in South America, the gold it had acquired from the natives and silver mining had made the country vastly wealthy and other nations were eager to get their share of the riches. America also had an abundant supply of farmland at a time when many farmers had small farms that they toiled over in an effort to merely support their families. In addition, as more settlers moved to America and created a demand for indulgences that they were accustomed to in Europe, the companies that sold such items made more money because of the higher prices the settlers had to pay in order to accommodate shipping costs. In short, while religious freedom was a noble and idealistic dream, it wouldn’t benefit anyone or make any money, which is what people were chiefly concerned with. How would America be different if it had been settled one hundred years later, in 1592? To begin with, it probably would not be called ‘America’. America is so named after Amerigo Vespucci; however, as he died in 1512, it is unlikely that we would have been named after him. Perhaps we would be named Raleigh, after Walter Raleigh, a British explorer of both North and South America in our actual history. Christopher Columbus would not be in history books, as he would not have been to Raleigh. Native Americans thus would have never been referred to as Indians. Because of our late start as a nation, it is reasonable to assume that certain historical events in our country would be delayed, let us say, fifty years or so. Because colonization was delayed, it would take longer for tensions to raise between the colonists and the French, so the French and Indian War would not have started in 1689, but around 1739 instead. This in turn would delay the Seven years war and thus the taxed imposed by the British that led to the American Revolution, which would now begin in 1825. Thus, we would have the Declaration of Independence on July 4th, 1826 and become our own country in 1833. Or alternatively, because of the differing technology, we might have lost the war and still been English today. But lets assume that we won and Raleigh was founded. I believe the Civil War would have been delayed as well until 1911, three years before World War One started. Both world wars, because we did not start them, would have happened the same years as they actually did, 1914 and 1939 respectably. However, I believe that the issue of civil and women’s’ rights would have been later in coming, perhaps in the 80’s. We would probably be dealing with racism more than gay rights today, if that were the case. And our music would be behind as well, so 60’s music today would then be 80’s music now. Age of Exploration. (2016, Oct 23).

Friday, October 18, 2019

Case study of HRM in China Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Of HRM in China - Case Study Example While the main aspect of Western HRM is the individual fixed-term contracts, individual performance evaluation, individual career development and freedom to recruit and fire, the Chinese HRM has also adopted these features into its people-management system (Yuan, 2013). However, the concept of HRM in China is not the same as in the West, despite its successful adoption. China has incorporated it in the new way of doing things. Thus, according to Shi (2010), HR experts in China are less engaged with the strategic activities and their role are also less strategic in comparison with their colleagues in the West. The HR measurement systems are also limited in function and HR information system is less automated and integrated. There is, however, a two speed system between the advanced HR systems of big State Owned Enterprises and smaller Local Private firms. Zhang (2012), states that such divergence feature as context-specific theories and practices of HRM can also influence the nature o f Chinese management practices. Thus, there is an effectiveness of paternalistic leadership in companies of China. In addition, Zhang (2012) claims that the hybrid model of HRM from Western societies has integrated into Chinese HRM with its traditional values. Thus, social order is associated with the harmony at work; hierarchy is considered as a beneficial effect within an organization. Chinese employees do not give critical feedback or suggest improvements, which is a part of high-performance HR trait within a Chinese firm. As an important element of China’s political and economic reforms, modernization of managing people was connected with the handling of personnel administration by the government. However, in the reform, the practice of managing personnel was changed and the management and the power were given to the enterprises. In the

Contract Renewal and Non-Renewal Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Contract Renewal and Non-Renewal - Case Study Example In this case, the principal is equally responsible for doing his job that includes making a review on the success of the three contacts in place and come up with necessary recommendations. In reviewing domain 1, there is active and successful student participation and thus no reason for nonrenewal. However, the lack of evidence of improvement challenges the expectation for better performance. Since ethical violations and incompetence comes before the poor performance in deciding whether to renew a contract under TEA, I will recommend the board to vote on this contract to decide whether to renew it or not for the next school year. In reviewing domain 2, there is the adequate delivery of instruction as recommended by the TEA and subsequent level of improvement is present. I will, therefore, recommend for the renewal of this contract for the next school year with a hope that more improvement will follow. In reviewing domain 3, I find that adequate competence is in place as shown in prof essional development that results in moderate improvement. As a result, I would recommend for the renewal of the contract for the next school year as their no reason for nonrenewal. Indeed, domain 3 satisfies the terms and expectations of the TEA.

Change Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 3

Change Management - Essay Example Jesse Westerly was an articulate employee who took over her position as an assistant product owner at Kauflauf with high ambitions to transform the revenues of the organisation. She was very visionary on turning around the fortunes of Kauflauf since she had demonstrated the capacity and potential for achieving the targets and objectives from her previous workstation. Indeed, she was capable of taking charge of the new position since prior to assuming her roles as the assistant product owner, she had conducted an extensive research on the operations of the field consultants and realised the organisation had a market potential that had not yet been exploited. She also discovered that the sales consultants were spending considerable resources and time on lesser clients while spending fewer or none of more profitable and potential customers. It is from this notion she conducted her research and came up with the recommendation of changing the sales calls patterns. Conversely, Jesse was resolute and wanted to assume her position with a performance impact the reason she worked, on the findings to create to achieve her objectives. Based on the change management theory, changes initiated by an organisation should succeed if they originate from the leader (Cameron & Green, 2012). In other words, the change of leadership is the most reliable manner to institute changes in a firm. Therefore, it was prudent as an assistant product owner that Jesse thought of utilising her position as a leader to initiate changes to revolutionise the manner in which the field consultants worked to enhance efficiency and thus boost the overall returns of the company in the long run. Jesse was efficient in taking charge of her new position. However, despite the ideal change plans she had in mind for the business, she did not have a suitable implementation plan that would transform the project into an executable course of action to realise the

Thursday, October 17, 2019

The Boer War Paper Term Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Boer War - Term Paper Example The Boer War was the first major military conflict of the 20th Century. The strategies employed by both sides set precedences for wars throughout the new century. The Boers used guerilla warfare tactics against the heavily favored British who herded many thousands of men, women and children into detention camps, both precursors of wars to come. Although the Boers eventually won their independence it came at a heavy cost to both sides. The Boers were the descendents of Dutch farmers of the Cape Colony in the nation of South Africa. Beginning in 1835, they began moving outside the region to establish the Transvaal and Orange Free State due to the constant border conflicts with the British overlords on one side of their territory and native tribes constantly encroaching on the other. Together these newly formed regions were known as the Boar Republic which included the town of Johannesburg. While the Boers considered themselves a sovereign, autonomous society, the British claimed all of South Africa as its own. The two factions held to a relative yet uneasy peace until gold was discovered in 1886 on Transvaal land. A gold rush ensued flooding the Boer’s lands with miners, speculators and adventurers, â€Å"outlanders† as they were called by the Boers. â€Å"The discovery of gold at Witwatersrand in the Transvaal ended Boer seclusion and brought a mortal threat to the young nation’s dream of freedom from alien rule. By 1896 the population of Johannesburg had grown to more than a hundred thousand.† (Weber, 2012). The Boers of the Transvaal were poor farmers. The discovery of gold was a great revenue producer but the newcomers producing this wealth were denied citizenship from the government. By 1896, the population of Johannesburg was about 100,000, half of which were white but only 6,200 were citizens, all Boers. Neither the British nor Boers allowed citizenship to the indigenous black population. Government officials received petitions, one with 18,000 and another with 35,000 signatures demanding it allow non-Boer whites citizenship. Neither was given serious consideration. The Transvaal and Orange Free State Boers formed an alliance as tensions between the groups worsened. British forces were dispatched to the Boer regions to help calm the situation but this move only made the situation worse. On October 10, 1899 the Boer government gave the British an ultimatum demanding that British forces be removed within 48 hours or war would be declared. (Chamberlain, Droogleever, 2003) Britain did not comply with the ultimatum to withdraw its troops. On October 11 the war began when the Boers attacked and took control of the towns of Ladysmith, Kimberley and Mafeking. While the British were struggling to relieve their besieged forces in these towns, the Boers achieved inspiring victories in other major British strongholds such as Colenso, Stormberg and Magersfontein in December 1899. The fortunes of war soon changed howeve r. By February of the next year Kimberley and Ladysmith had been retaken by the British. The somewhat disorganized Boer troops were being scattered throughout the countryside. Soon the Boer front line, such as it was, collapsed. The next several months were a time of great uncertainty

Employee Selection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Employee Selection - Essay Example Mt. Sinai Hospital, an institution I work for, Is a healthcare organization located in New York and has a bed capacity of 1171, 2510 physicians, and 2278 nurses (Mount Sinai, 2015). Its mandate is provision of high quality healthcare services that meets the needs of its diverse clientele. Its ability to achieve high levels of quality can be construed as been attributed to a reliable and authentic employee selection process and performance appraisal. During the employee selection process, it is important to note that managers usually stand to gain a hit or miss. These hits and misses, as stipulated by Bohlander and Scott (2010), usually form the overall goal of the selection criteria. The employee selection process defines a hit as the most accurate prediction of hiring an employee who turns out to be unsuccessful on the job while a miss is the most inaccurate prediction of missing on to hire an employee who might have turned out to be successful while on the job (Bohlander & Scott, 2 010). Having worked in the nursing field for some time now, I have come to realize the importance of employee selection and performance appraisal as it ultimately determines the success or failure of an organization. This is in regards to the fact that, recruitment of qualified employees is imperative for the achievement of projected outcomes, particularly in achieving high levels of quality in care provision. Though recruitment and selection of employees is the overall responsibility of the human resource department

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Media Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Media Analysis - Essay Example Introduction The term â€Å"media† was coined with the advent of radio networks, magazines and newspapers in the 1920. The media do have several main functions all of which have at least political insinuations: reporting, entertainment, socializing new generations, identifying public problems, making profits and providing a political forum. It is known to play a central role in influencing people, and, therefore, changes the formation of attitudes and beliefs. The following sections are dedicated to the study of the media in relation to daily occurrences and processes, and will consider the interaction between media and the government in daily life, in Australia and United States of America. Television Media Media television is specifically designed to serve a large audience. Television, manuscripts and books, internet, prerecorded video and speech, music, film, mobile phones and video games are today regarded as media. Hollywood executives have in the past admitted that media wields extraordinary power to entertain, educate and inform. Television programming is meant to entertain, educate and informing the masses, and known to play a main role in forming or changing people’s attitudes towards subjects or objects. Television and Politics In print media, political discussions are unavoidable just like political stories cannot miss on television extremely day. Political news and political announcements are regularly encountered on all forms of media and more especially during campaigns. Media also provides a forum for the general public to discuss topical issues, which are of, national interest. In overall, media remains a vital means through which people get information regarding the performance of their governments on top of other products that it offers. While the importance of media as the government’s watchdog cannot be undermined, it is also noted that sometimes media presents information in a biased way to influence the public in makin g decisions, which may or, may not be for their benefits. The mass media does several main functions all of which have at least political insinuations: reporting, entertainment, socializing new generations, identifying public problems, making profits and providing a political forum. When it comes to government activities, the media does have even greater influence than it has during political campaigns. This is in line with the fact that both president and media need each other. In Australia, television remains the most commonly used sources of news and current affairs with most cable television news and internet services. US Television Networks In the United States, there are five key television networks. For example, there is over-the-air; free-to-air; cable television; internet television and direct satellite broadcasting. Furthermore, there are syndicated shows which do rerun several TV series and old movies. However, there have been new concepts, which have been, established to promote the airing of international programs like National Football League, the Simpsons which do broadcast through UHF. As such, such prime time schedules and programs have been aired for not more than two hours, but when international programs like the Simpsons have achieved success despite that they were aired for a short time. However, the programs broadcasted did achieve such eminent success, and, therefore, such international programs were promoted. Consequently, that was the inception of the airing

Employee Selection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Employee Selection - Essay Example Mt. Sinai Hospital, an institution I work for, Is a healthcare organization located in New York and has a bed capacity of 1171, 2510 physicians, and 2278 nurses (Mount Sinai, 2015). Its mandate is provision of high quality healthcare services that meets the needs of its diverse clientele. Its ability to achieve high levels of quality can be construed as been attributed to a reliable and authentic employee selection process and performance appraisal. During the employee selection process, it is important to note that managers usually stand to gain a hit or miss. These hits and misses, as stipulated by Bohlander and Scott (2010), usually form the overall goal of the selection criteria. The employee selection process defines a hit as the most accurate prediction of hiring an employee who turns out to be unsuccessful on the job while a miss is the most inaccurate prediction of missing on to hire an employee who might have turned out to be successful while on the job (Bohlander & Scott, 2 010). Having worked in the nursing field for some time now, I have come to realize the importance of employee selection and performance appraisal as it ultimately determines the success or failure of an organization. This is in regards to the fact that, recruitment of qualified employees is imperative for the achievement of projected outcomes, particularly in achieving high levels of quality in care provision. Though recruitment and selection of employees is the overall responsibility of the human resource department

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Robert Browning’s “Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister” Essay Example for Free

Robert Browning’s â€Å"Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister† Essay Robert Browning’s â€Å"Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister† is, as the title suggests, the soliloquy of an unnamed monk, complaining to himself against Brother Laurence, another monk whom he has to be cloistered with in the monastery. He accuses the other monk with numerous immoralities and values against their faith and chosen vocation. However, the very offenses that he accuses Brother Laurence with reveal his own violation of each one. The monk’s grumpy mood can be inferred from the non-verbal words in the poem like â€Å"Gr-r-r† (line 1) and â€Å"Whew! † (line 17) and the colloquial expressions of disgust like â€Å"Saint, forsooth! † (line 25). In spite the anger, the rhyme and rhythm are regular and restrained all throughout, in consistence with the formal and self-righteous personality of the speaker. He remains dignified externally, but seethes inside. Meanwhile, the stanzas enumerate the many accusations the monk levels against Brother Laurence, all of which expose his own hypocrisies. In the fourth stanza, the monk accuses the other of desiring Brown Dolores. At the same time, he describes her with details that are beyond a cursory description like his comment on her â€Å"Blue-black, lustrous steeping tresses†¦thick like horsehairs† (lines 28-29), revealing his own hidden desires for the woman. In the fifth stanza, he criticizes Brother Laurence’s table manners, how â€Å"when he finishes reflection/ Knife and fork he never lays/ Cross-wife† (lines 33-36) like the self-righteous speaker does after meals. Here he is guilty of thinking badly about his fellow and vanity for thinking he is better than the other man. He also plans to tempt the other monk with his own copy of a â€Å"scrofulous French novel† (line 57), exposing his own lustful preoccupation. The final hypocrisy is shown in the final lines where the monk intersperses his vesper prayers with a curse against Brother Laurence, implicating himself to heresy. Work Cited Browning, Robert. â€Å"Soliluquy of the Spanish Cloister. †

Monday, October 14, 2019

Section 31, Children Act 1989 Threshold Criteria

Section 31, Children Act 1989 Threshold Criteria Before a court can make a care order, it must be satisfied that the ‘threshold criteria’ in Section 31 of the Children Act 1989 have been met.[1] The order must also promote the welfare of the child.[2] The main effect of a care order is to give parental responsibility for the child to the local authority.[3] If a care order is made, the child can be removed by the local authority at any time.[4] The threshold criteria, therefore, play a significant role in that they prevent care orders being made simply based on what is in the best interests of the child.[5] However, as this paper will demonstrate, the threshold for state intervention at various stages of the child protection process has been extremely controversial. Section 31 Children Act 1989: Threshold Criteria One of the great problems in the law of child protection is that if the wrong decision is made, great harm may result. As Bainham said: â€Å"The law in this area has to strike a careful balance between enabling the protection of children at risk of harm, with protecting the rights to respect for family life for children and their parents†[6] Not surprisingly, there is substantial case law on the interpretation of s.31 of the Children Act 1989 and the House of Lords have considered their interpretation in some important cases which will be assessed afterwards.[7] An analysis would be made about whether the courts have interpreted the threshold criteria in a strict or lax way. If interpreted in a strict way, this would imply that it would be more problematic for the local authority to satisfy the grounds for a care order. Under the first limb of threshold, the local authority must show that the â€Å"child concerned is suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm† when applying for a care order.[8] Although quite straightforward, there have been concerns about when the alleged state of affairs must be shown to exist.[9] ‘Is suffering’ In Re M[10], the key issue was the meaning of ‘is’ in the threshold criteria. In this case, the children’s father had murdered their mother. Three of the four children were placed with their aunt. The remaining child was placed with foster carers, but later joined her aunt. However, the local authority still wanted a care order just in case it became necessary to remove the child from the aunt’s house. By the time the case came to court, it was hard to say that the child was, at that time, suffering from significant harm or that she was likely to. Their Lordships hence explained that the correct test was â€Å"whether the child was suffering from significant harm at the time when the local authority first intervened†.[11] Given that interpretation of the threshold, this was clearly satisfied. That decision is clearly correct, as their Lordships indicated or else it would be difficult for the local authority to obtain a care order in cases where child ren were put in excellent care.[12] It was a lax interpretation of the threshold criteria as a strict interpretation would have made the law hard to operate. ‘Likely to suffer significant harm’ The alternative ground on which the local authority can satisfy the first limb of the threshold criteria under s.31(2)(a) of the Children Act 1989 is the likelihood of future significant harm. One of the major issues that local authorities encounter is that predictions that child abuse will occur are difficult to make. Removing a child on the ground of speculative harm is controversial as it is impossible to know whether or not the harm would occur.[13] In Re H[14], there were several issues for the court. The first was the meaning of ‘likely’. Their Lordships held that ‘likely’ meant that significant harm was a ‘real possibility’.[15] It was not necessary to show that the harm was probable in the sense of ‘more likely than not’.[16] This is a notably lax interpretation of the threshold criteria. They also held that it must be shown, on the balance of probabilities, that the threshold was satisfied. They rejected the view that the criminal burden of proof should be applied. However, rather confusingly, Lord Nicholls said that â€Å"where there was a more serious allegation, more evidence would be required to establish it on a balance of probability than a case of a less serious allegation†.[17] This dicta was reconsidered by the court in Re B[18] where their Lordships made it clear that Lord Nicholls was not suggesting that, in cases of serious abuse, the criminal burden of proof should be used.[19] The civil balance of proof should be applied in all cases under the Children Act 1989. Instead, what Lord Nicholls implied, was that â€Å"some allegations will be inherently unlikely and they will require more evidence to establish them than others†. This interpretation was followed in Re S-B[20]. This aspect of the decision in Re B and Re H is perhaps best viewed as a lax interpretation, although it is probably not as lax as it could have been. Requiring a criminal burden of proof would have indeed made it very difficult for the local authority to obtain a care order. However, Lord Nicholls’ approach to the standard of proof, as well as its wider implications for protecting children at risk of harm has attracted strong academic criticism. Re B also confirmed another aspect of the decision in Re H. Risk of significant harm can only be established based on ‘primary facts’ which would then have to be proved on the balance of probabilities. Mere suspicions are not sufficient. In Re H, a 15 year old girl alleged that she had been raped by her stepfather. The local authority sought a care order in respect of the girl’s three younger siblings who continued to live with the man. There was a strong suspicion that the older girl had been abused and that the younger girls were at risk of being harmed. However, as it had not been proved on the balance of probabilities that the girl had been abused, no primary facts had been proved and thus, no care order was granted. As Lord Hoffman in Re B stated, â€Å"either a fact happened or it did not and there was nothing in between†. If there are no facts to support a finding of risk of future harm, the court is powerless to proceed.[21] This is, undoubtedly, a strict interpretation of the threshold criteria. The majority of their Lordships saw this issue in terms of parental rights; parents should not have their children removed on the basis of suspicions. However, it is suggested that this is not a safe approach to risk taking with children.[22] The reason why it is unsafe is that it would be very difficult for the local authority to safeguard a child’s right to be protected from abuse even when there is a serious risk of danger. As this analysis suggests, there are evidential problems and difficulties of predicting the future. The problems of proof partly explain the lengthy delays which can occur in child protection proceedings.[23] With the introduction of the Children and Families Act 2014, there is now a 26-week time limit for completing care proceedings with the possibility of extending the time limit for up to 8 weeks, if this is necessary to resolve the proceedings justly.[24] However, an important issue that arises here is whether this is achievable in complex cases. ‘Timescales can end up replacing professional judgment’.[25] ‘Harm attributable to the care given or likely to be given or the child’s being beyond parental control’ Uncertainty about who caused harm to the child is also another issue which local authorities and courts generally encounter.[26] The issue of the ‘unknown perpetrator’ was addressed in the case of Lancashire CC v B[27]. In this case, it was clear that the child had suffered harm. However, it was not clear whether it was the parent or the child minder who had caused harm to the child. Their Lordships held that as long as it was clear that the abuse was caused by a parent or a child minder, it did not matter which had perpetrated the abuse. On the other hand, where it is not clear whether the harm was caused by a parent or someone who was not a primary carer of the child, then no care order could be made. Although the House of Lords provided a clear guidance on when the threshold criteria would be satisfied in the case of an ‘unknown perpetrator’, they provided limited guidance on how the court should deal with an unknown perpetrator when deciding whether a ca re order should be granted.[28] Their Lordships returned to that issue in Re O and N[29], where it was emphasised that â€Å"just because the threshold criteria was satisfied, it did not automatically mean that a care order had to be made†. In one of the appeal cases, it was evident that the child was harmed by one of the parents, who had since separated. The child lived with the mother. The issue for their Lordships was whether the suspicions that the harm may have been caused by the mother should be considered. Their Lordships held that suspicions could be considered at the welfare stage. Lord Nicholls however emphasised that social workers should be careful in such cases to treat the parents as potential perpetrators, not proved perpetrators. Therefore, in Re S-B, it was confirmed that if both parents were possible perpetrators, the court might decide to remove the child as they were at risk of harm. It is therefore submitted that in Lancashire, the House of Lords took a noticeably lax interpretation of t he threshold criteria as the children could be removed from their parents even if they did not perpetrate the abuse. However, it was probably not as lax as it could have been as it was necessary to show that a primary carer of the child was harming the child. ‘Significant harm’ Even if the facts are known, there is much controversy over how much suffering the child should face before the local authority could intervene. Harm is very widely defined in s.31(9) of the Children Act 1989 as the â€Å"ill-treatment or the impairment of health or development.† ‘Health’ means ‘physical and mental health’. ‘Development’ includes â€Å"physical, intellectual, emotional or behavioural development†. As a result of the Adoption and Children Act 2002, the definition of ‘harm’ also includes the ‘impairment suffered by hearing or seeing the ill-treatment of another’. The legislation, however, does not define the line between ‘harm’ and ‘significant harm’. The Court of Appeal in Re C (A Child)[30] explained that to be significant, the harm had to be â€Å"great enough to justify the local authority interfering in the autonomous life of the family†. The test will therefore be subjective to the particular circumstances. This raises many questions. If a local authority finds that a child is living in a house where the family’s diet is unhealthy and where the children spend all their time in front of the television, what should be done? Joanna Nicolas, a child protection consultant, believes that â€Å"obesity should also be treated as a form of abuse as any type of under-feeding is, because of the physical impact on the child, the implications for their future health and the psychological impact.†[31] However, many would argue that this kind of situation is not sufficiently serious to justify intervention. This puts social workers in a difficult situation as they do not know in which circumstances it will be appropria te for them to intervene. Ward LJ also stresses the importance of Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights when assessing the significance of the harm, highlighting that Article 8 requires that there must be a ‘†relevant and sufficient† reason for crossing the threshold’.[32] Additionally, if the state is to intervene in a child’s life, the level of state intervention must be proportionate to the risk that the child is suffering. There is a danger that a child who is genuinely suffering will be known to the local authority, but never, quite, be regarded as suffering sufficiently to justify intervention. In Re MA[33], the local authority found that a girl, who was not the biological daughter of the parents, had been badly treated by them. However, no care order was granted in respect of the parents’ other children as their Lordships found that there was no sufficient evidence of a risk of significant harm to their natural children. The decision in this case is controversial as the parents demonstrated a capacity for cruelty and thus gave rise to a real possibility that they would harm their own children. In deciding whether the child is suffering from ‘significant harm’, the ‘child’s health or development must be compared with that which could reasonably be expected of a ‘similar child’.[34] There are a number of issues in regards to the ‘similar child’ test. There is particular controversy over the extent to which the cultural background of the child should be taken into account.[35] It is also unclear to which extent the characteristics or capabilities of the parents should be considered. Reforms and recommendations For the last 40 years, several reforms have been intended to improve the law on ‘child protection’ and compensate for failures in practice. Many of these reforms responded to the cumulative evidence inspections and high-profile reviews into children’s deaths including: the 1974 Maria Colwell inquiry which led to the Area Review Committees, the 1988 Cleveland inquiry which formed the early versions of the statutory guidance Working Together To Safeguard Children and the Victoria Climbià © Report which contributed to the Every Child Matters green paper with recommended policies designed to ensure that it never happened again. Since the individual reforms of the past have all seemed intelligent and well-designed, it seems puzzling that they have not achieved their intended goals.[36] It is submitted that there may have been too many unnecessary targets. Instead of addressing existing practical problems, such as poor system management and inadequate funding, the prev ious reforms have focussed too much on the process of case management and increasing regulation. This may have impeded the real issue of child protection. The Munro report has provided some interesting recommendations to improve the law on child protection with particular focus on early intervention, the transparency and accountability of the system and the expertise of the social work profession. In conclusion, it is submitted that there is no consistent theme in the approach of their Lordships in regards to the threshold criteria. There is however increasing evidence to suggest that the thresholds need to be lower. Witnesses from the courts found little or no evidence of inappropriate removal of children and many instances where earlier removal would have been appropriate.[37] This is backed by academic research. Professor Ward noted that â€Å"there is substantial evidence that many children remain for too long with or are returned to abusive and neglectful families with insufficient support.[38] Word Count: 2500 Bibliography Primary Sources Cases Lancashire CC v B [2000] 1 FCR 509 Re B (Children) (Care Proceedings: Standard of Proof) [2008] UKHL 35 Re C (A Child) [1993] 1 FLR 257 Re D (Care: Threshold Criteria) [1998] Fam Law 656 Re D (A Child) (Care Order: Evidence) [2010] EWCA Civ 1000 Re H and Others (minors) (sexual abuse: standard of proof) [1996] AC 563 Re L (Children) [2006] EWCA Civ 1282 Re M (A Minor) (Care Order: Threshold Conditions) [1994] 2 FLR 577 Re MA (Care Threshold) [2009] EWCA Civ 853 Re O and N (Children) (Non-accidental injury) [2003] 1 FCR 673 Re O (A Minor) (Care Order: Education: Procedure) [1992] 4 All ER 905 Re P (Care Proceedings) [2012] EWCA Civ 401 Re S-B (Children) [2009] UKSC 17 Re T (A Child) (Care Order) [2009] 2 FCR 367 Statutes and statutory instruments Adoption and Children Act 2002 Children Act 1989 Children Act 2004 Children and Families Act 2014 Secondary Sources Books Herring J, Family Law (6th edition, Pearson Education Ltd, 2013) Harris-Short S and Miles J, Family Law: Text, Cases and Materials (2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2011) Journal articles Bainham A, ‘Striking the Balance in Child Protection’ [2009] CLJ 42 Hayes M, ‘Uncertain Evidence and Risk-Taking in Child Protection Cases’ [2004] CLFQ 63 Keating H, ‘Shifting Standards in the House Of Lords’ [1996] CFLQ 157 Lowe N and Cobley C, ‘The statutory â€Å"threshold† under Section 31 of the Children Act 1989-time to take a stock’ LQR 396 Masson J, ‘Reforming Care Proceedings- Time for a Review’ [2007] CLFQ 411 Websites Department for Education, ‘Landmark Children and Families Act 2014 gains royal assent’ (Press release, 13 March 2014)