Saturday, August 31, 2019
The country of Greece in 400-500 B.C. was led to greatness by two great city-states. These city-states were Athens and Sparta. These two states were as different as night and day. They were rivals and very diverse. As you read you will find out their differences between their form of culture and government. The city-state of Athens adopted a form of government which is now called democracy. Democracy is when the government is ruled by the people. This government consisted of an assembly , a jury , and there was a council of 500 men over 30 . The council decided such matters as to declare war or to spend money. The council was used to make decisions for the Athenian government. All men that were citizens were able to participate in an assembly , hold office , vote , and serve on a jury. Slaves could not do any of these things because they were not counted as citizens . The Athenian government was as similar as the American government today (Meigas 32). Unlike the government of Athens the government of Sparta flourished as an aristocracy . This type of government is when a place is ruled by a small number of people from the upper class . There was a Council of Elders , an assembly , and the five ephors. The Council of Elders was made up of two kings and 28 men over the age of 60. This council decided on making laws. The assembly was made out of all male citizens over 30. The assembly did many things. It elected government workers and voted on laws that were introduced by the Council of Elders. The ephors were selected by the assembly. The ephors were overseers. They controlled slaves , conducted business with foreign countries , and negotiated with the kings (Hornblower 35). The men of ancient Athens were very educated. From their childhood until the ages of six or seven the men were taught home by their mother or a male slave. After the age of seven they attended a normal day school. At school they learned drama, public speaking, reading, writing, and mathematics . When they reached the age of fourteen they attended a higher school for four more years. At the higher school they learned more math , more science , and things about the government. When the men reached the age of 18 the were required to attend military school for 2 more years. The Athenian men were skilled architects , poets , and artists. From them is where we get great works known as The Odyssey and The Iliad by the writer known as Homer (Meigas 123). The men of ancient Sparta were very cunning , slick , and strong. During their childhood the Spartan men were taken away from their parents. Being taken away at the age of seven , they were sent to military school. If a child was not strong , he/she was left on a cliff to die of exposure. In the military school they lived in barracks. They were taught survival skills , the endurance of pain , discipline , and toughness at the school. They were given little food and were encouraged to steal. If they were caught stealing they would get a beating. They were also beaten up by older children in fights , so they could become tough and strong. At the age of 20 the Spartan men finally became soldiers. Once they got married , they were only allowed to live in their own homes with their family at the age of 30. At this age they were considered equals. The military service for the Spartan men ended at the age of 60 (Connolly 230). The Athenian women were very literate and educated. The women were not counted as citizens and they were not allowed to hold property. The women received the same education as the Athenian men did. Although the education was the same, the women were not allowed to leave the household. They did not go shopping or to run errands. Their husband did most of these things. The main job of the women was to run the household. She managed the familyÃ¢â¬ s money , the children , and the slaves. She also spun wool and created artistic pottery (Hornblower 145). In Sparta the lives of women were unlike the lives of any other Greek polis. The Spartan state didn't take the academic education of a female seriously. The physical education that the women had was very tough and grueling. They learned gymnastics and aerobics. They also had more freedom then women of other city-states. They were able to move from place to place , do the shopping , and control the house. They also had a lot of freedom from their husbands because their husbands lived in barracks. Most of the time the Spartan women worked on fields and were medics to the injured Spartan soldiers. They were considered as mothers to all Spartan soldiers (Connolly 260). This is how the culture and the government of the Greek city-states of Sparta and Athens was different. Each state had a different type of education and a different momentum of how the government wanted their polis to be. These city-states again were very diverse and different. In my writing you saw how different they were.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Project Synopsis This project involves the study of social and cultural background of Maheshwar Situated in a town in Khargone district of Madhya Pradesh through this project we are expected to reflect upon the experience which we had gained by engaging in a field work in the town Maheshwar and inculcating the good aspects which we have learned so that we could cater to the need of the society which demands the managers with sociological perspective, change agents and societal leaders. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Maheshwar is a town in Khargone district of Madhya Pradesh state, in central India. It is located 91 km from Indore, the commercial capital of the state. The town lies on the north bank of the Narmada River. Maheshwar is on the bank of mighty Narmada River and is famous for its Maheshwar temple and Fort. The fort was built by renowned queen Ahilayabai Holkar. The beauty of Narmada River and the fort is worth seeing. Maheshwar has been a centre of handloom weaving. Maheshwar is also famous for its finely woven Maheshwari Sarees. Maheshwari sarees were introduced 250 years ago by Rani Ahilyabai, the ruler of princely Indore State from 1765 to 1795. She brought in weavers from Surat in Gujarat and Mandu and established them at Maheshwar, to weavespecial nine-yard saris for the ladies of royal household, and turban fabric. Rani Ahilyabai moved her capital to Maheshwar, constructing the splendid 18th century Maratha-architecture based, Ahilya Fort, on the banks of the sacred Narmada River . Besides her capital being an industrial enterprise for textile, it was also a thriving destination for literary, sculpture, music and arts. Fort Built by Mata Ahilyabai Holkar Ahilya Fort is a magnificent structure that is around 250 years old. Overlooking the Narmada River, it is perched-up high on a hill and thus offers an amazing view of the ghats below. The fort includes ancient- styleÃ courtyards, verandahs and stone walkways. It was once the residence of Ahilya Bai Holkar, one of the most celebrated women rulers of India during the 18th century Handloom in Maheshwar Handloom weaving in Maheshwar has an ancient history dating back more than 1500 years. The current tradition owes its resurgence to Maharani Ahilyabai Holkar, who ruled the state of Indore from 1765 to 1795, and it was under her patronage that the weavers prospered. Baneshwar Mahadev Temple On an island in the middle of the river stands the Baneshwar Mahadev Temple. It is believed that a heavenly line (an axis of sorts) from the North Star passes through this temple to the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s centre
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Case Study 1: Pre-Audit Preparation Instructions: 1. Each participant should individually study the background of the company including the background of organisation, organisation chart and process flow chart provided: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Managing Customer Service: Front Office VVG-FO-B-7.5.1 (D) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Managing Customer Service: Food and Beverage VVG-FB-B-7.5.1 (D) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Managing Property: Engineering VVG-EN-B-7.5.1 (D) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Delivery Service: Housekeeping VVG-HK-B-7.5.1 (D) 2. Prepare an audit plan for an internal audit of one business process but not your own work (use template of audit plan provided in Case Study 1: Output 1 or current Internal Audit Program). State any assumptions that you have made in preparing the audit plan. The plan should: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Define the scope of the audit; Ã¢â¬ ¢ What to audit (documents, records, activities); Ã¢â¬ ¢ Who to select for interview and reason for selection; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Where and when to audit (locations, audit trails, sequences, estimated time required); Ã¢â¬ ¢ Methods for gathering objective evidence (interview, observation, document / record review). 3. Prepare an audit checklist with suitable questions to guide you in verifying the conformance, implementation and effectiveness of the QMS at the Sales and Marketing Department (use template of audit checklist in Case Study 1: Output 2 or current Internal Audit Program) Case Study 1: Output 1Name of Participant: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. ISO 9001 Internal Audit Plan Audit Specifications | | | |Audit Objectives | | |Audit Scope | | |Audit Client | | |Audit Team | | |Audit Dates | | |Audit Locations | | |Audit Criteria | | Date: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Day: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Assessment Program / Audit Plan |Time |Area |Clause |Auditor |Auditee | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Lunch | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Date: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Day: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Assessment Program / Audit Plan |Time |Area |Clause |Auditor |Auditee | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Lunch | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Case Study 1: Output 2Name of Participant: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Internal Audit Checklist Department: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Date of Audit: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Title of Procedure / Documents: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Auditor: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢ â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Auditee: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Page(s): Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ of Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. |No |Step |Internal Audit|ISO Clause | | | |Checklist | | | | |Questions | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Audit Conclusion | | Case Study 2: Output 2Name of Participant: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. For one selected non-conformity / observation: |Internal Audit Corrective and Preventive Action Report No.:Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. | |To: From: | |(Auditee) (Auditor) | |Audit Criteria: ISO 9001 Clause No.: | |and / or Procedure: | |Description of Non-conformity / Observation (Part 1 by Auditor): | | | | | |AuditorÃ¢â¬â¢s Name / Signature: Date: | |AuditeeÃ¢â¬â¢s Name / Signature: Date: | |(to be completed: 1 moth) | |(a) Root Cause(s) (Part 2 by Auditee): | | | | | |2. (b) Correction and Corrective / Preventive Action Plans to be taken | |Correction Plans: | | | | | |Corrective / Preventive Action Plans: | | | | | |AuditeeÃ¢â¬â¢s Name / Signature: Date: | |Verification of Corrective / Preventive Action: | | | | | |AuditorÃ¢â¬â¢s Name / Signature: Date: |
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
The mail - Essay Example Repayment of the loan is also important to them and at what rate it will be repaid, I am planning to repay the loan in two years time since I have already registered three hundred students who are to commence their studies next year. I already have 0.5 million dollars as capital and the extra funds will enable me to rent offices, hire lecturers, buy office furniture and equipments, and advertise in the media and internet and also to obtain a license which is very expensive to obtain. The presentation is the key to the success or failure of my plans therefore after the presentation I want the audience to be confident and satisfied with my plan and offer me the money, if it's possible I would like them to ask me to consider their partnership in the company. The presentation will last for at most three hours, I will therefore need to have a visual aid which include an LCD projector, a laptop and in this case led me yours and also a hearing aid. I am therefore needed to have slides that will aid me in communicating to them.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Write a discussion in the form of a literature review that identifies what the different research philosophies are - Essay Example Thus, the choice of methodology for answering a research question or investigating a specific problem is an important decision for the final result or outcome. The way in which people collect and interpret data or information during the research is broadly varying and depends on the research philosophy followed by a researcher. Every methodology has its own philosophical groundwork, which is important for understanding as it promotes better informed research (Eriksson & Kovalainen, 2008). The aim of this research is to provide an overview of the literature related to various research philosophies including both ontological and epistemological research stances, and to explore such main philosophical research paradigms, as idealism, realism, positivism, interpretivism, pragmatism, and phenomenology. Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill (2012) explain that practically every stage of research process is based on assumptions about human knowledge, and state that these assumptions shape the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of the questions he/she is looking answers for. Therefore, assumptions of the researcher predefine his/her research philosophy Ã¢â¬â the way which he or she views the world (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 2012; Crossan, 2003). Research philosophy is defined by Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill (2012, p. 127) as Ã¢â¬Å"the development of knowledge and the nature of that knowledgeÃ¢â¬ . Proctor (1998) explains that research philosophies depend on the level of enquiry and can be differentiated by three categories: epistemological (what can be known?); ontological (what is the nature of reality?); and methodological (how can a researcher explore/find what he/she believes can be known?). More detailed overview of ontological and epistemological stances in provided in th e next section. While researchers rarely take time to explore and analyze assumptions related to their personal values, this practice could be very helpful in understanding wider
Monday, August 26, 2019
Describe how your nursing practice paralleled the code of ethics - Essay Example Nurses and the people Nurses and the people is one of the major elements that outline the basis of emulating high level of ethics in the provision of care. During the provision of care, nurses should respect the values, family customs, and spiritual beliefs of the people requiring care (Scanlon, 2000). In addition, it is imperative for nurses to provide adequate information regarding the kind of illnesses to the individual in need of care. In order to be compatible with the ethics issues relating to nurses and people, I learn the aspects of human rights, justice and equity. In addition, issues regarding confidentiality and privacy were also covered in the nursing courses in order to have the required skills on dealing with patientÃ¢â¬â¢s personal information. Nurses and practice In order to be competent, accountable and responsible in their practice, nurses should undertake continual learning. In this way, nurse ability to provide proper care is not compromised. In order to avoid n egative repercussions during delegating of their duties, it is important for nurses to use proper judgment concerning the level of competency of the individuals. One of the major learning aspects I covered in my nursing practice was the research that depicted the relationship between continual learning and competency for workers. This was also strengthened by the research-based studies that covered the importance of personal health and safe working conditions. It is also necessary for nurses to emulate the emerging technology in order to ensure their services are streamlined. The use of computerized system in the nursing practice was another major initiative that I covered in order to be aware of how to tackle emerging challenges that need for specialized attendance of patients. Nurses and the profession One of the ethical aspects in the nursing practice is to implement legal standards during their duties. In order to improve their services, nurses should be engaged in developing an d proper implementation of research-based knowledge. This means that nurses should register with professional bodies where they gain effective skills on how to maintain safety in their working environment as well as equitable economic and social conditions in the nursing professional (Scanlon, 2000). Some of the major aspects that relate to the nursing and the profession I covered include how to set nursing standards as well as the role of the professional bodies in the nursing practice. In the same way, the skills I gained in regard to the need for proper management in the nursing practice, are vital in maintaining the accountability and proper use of nursing resources as required by the nursing ethics, Nurses and fellow workers One of the major aspects that portray professionalism in the nursing practice is to maintain a positive relationship among the nurses. It is vital to note that due to the sensitivity of their duties, nurses should have the necessary skills to attend a patie nt in case a co-worker fails or is not available (ICN Code of Ethics For Nurses). In order to ensure there is a sustainable relationship between the nurse and the coworkers, it is fundamental to create strong teams. This means that nurses should be knowledgeable of how to form and motivate teams, major aspects that I covered in the nursing courses. Other areas that I covered that depicts parallel of my nursing with
Marketing - Research Paper Example The campaign included a brand which was well known is Ireland "Race Against Waste-Reduce, Reuse, Recycle". This waste management campaign is one of the most successful in history. RPS played a major role in engaging major sectors by creating awareness and implementation of sustainable waste management. Several programs were developed to address waste management throughout the country by targeting all sectors (AlMaÃ¢â¬â¢adeed, et al, 2011). As a result, recycling rate in Ireland rose to 35% from 13%. The success of this campaign can be measured through the many awards it won. In Qatar, there is a waste management concern throughout the country. This is because Qatar is emerging to be one of the fastest growing economies thereby increasing the total amount of waste produced. Currently, Qatar is one of the biggest generator id waste with per capita waste generation rates of 1.8kg daily, over 7,000 tons of solid waste daily and municipal wastes over 2.5 million tons annually. Municipalities handle waste management through logistics or through contracting the private sector. The main method of waste disposal in landfills where waste is discharged from collection points by trucks. Land availability in Qatar is limited, as such, landfills are not a practical waste management strategy. It is therefore imperative to note that Qatar needs a comprehensive multi-faceted waste management strategy (Wilson, 2007). The target market for this campaign is the oil companies. Qatar is one of the leading producers and suppliers of oil. As such, it is prudent for the oil and gas companies to appreciate the need for environmental protection through evaluation of their waste management practices. The oil sector produces hazardous waste which is harmful to the environment and health of the public. Waste from oil companies include industrial waste, oil sludge, shipping waste, removal of blockage from pressure technique
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Jodi Picoult - Research Paper Example Her first novel titled Ã¢â¬ËSongs of the Humpback whaleÃ¢â¬â¢ was written when she was pregnant with her first child and she found it quite difficult to strike a balance between work and motherhood. It was all these experiences that influenced her second novel titled Ã¢â¬ËHarvesting the Heart.Ã¢â¬â¢ The basis for this book comprised partly of her balancing act between her career and her life as a mother. As Picoult states - "It took me a while to find the balance," Picoult says, "but I'm a better mother because I have my writingÃ¢â¬ ¦ and I'm a better writer because of the experiences I've had as a parent that continually remind me how far we are willing to go for the people we love the most."Ã (Jodi Picoult, 2007) Ã¢â¬ËNineteen MinutesÃ¢â¬â¢ by Jodi Picoult, is a rather shocking story that is very much relevant in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s contemporary society. This very interesting story revolves around a young boy named Peter Houghton, who was a victim of bullying right from h is kindergarten up to his High School. The bullying included slamming him into the school lockers, snatching away his lunch and breaking his spectacles to smithereens. (Nann Blaine Hilyard, 2007) Hate builds up over the years and one fine morning in March, Peter goes to school with a gun and shoots down a teacher and nine students within 19 minutes. The author has given a very apt title for this story and with her keen sense of analyzing the current scenario of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, she has the ability to trigger feelings and emotions of people involved in different relationships. Her fictional stories such as Ã¢â¬ËNineteen MinutesÃ¢â¬â¢ seems almost lifelike because we see it happening in our lives even today. Her philosophy of life goes beyond sensationalism and creates an awareness not only among parents but also among students, of some of the social issues that face us today. Ã¢â¬ËMy SisterÃ¢â¬â¢s KeeperÃ¢â¬â¢ is another enlightening story by Picoult who makes use of multiple narrators to drive home the message of social awareness in contemporary society. The central theme in this story is dependency, that is clearly brought out by 13 year old Anna Fitzgerald who has an older sister Kate. It is rather unfortunate that Kate was afflicted with a rare kind of leukemia and depended on her sister Anna for a variety of blood products. Anna being an allogeneic donor was a fitting sibling match for Kate. (Dignan Jennifer, 2005) Picoult pulls at the heart strings of her audience by making use of different narrators who express their feelings and emotions regarding the happenings in the Fitzgerald household. She involves the readers by shedding light on what life would mean to the donor, the recipient, parents and other children in the family and comes out with the moral, ethical and legal issues that can confront them at every stage of their lives. Though AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s parents show a lot of love and concern for her, in the bigger picture Anna understand s that she is there for a purpose and the purpose was to save her sister Kate. (Dignan Jennifer, 2005) Anna feels used and does no quite believe her mother when she says that she and her father love her a lot. This point clearly expresses AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s doubt when she states that her mother Ã¢â¬Ëmade sure to sayÃ¢â¬â¢ that her parents loved her. The bond and respect between both the sisters is very strong even though they quarrel sometimes. Jodi PicoultÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËA Change of HeartÃ¢â¬â¢ is the gripping tale of a murderer who was on the death row
Saturday, August 24, 2019
For this assignment you are required to write a feature piece about one of the statements provided below - Essay Example Although the Games, once brought forward from their dusty past in antiquity, were initially held in mostly Western European nations, the Olympic Museum (2007) reports that they Ã¢â¬Å"have now been held on every continent except Africa.Ã¢â¬ However, Africa, as a continent, could use the attention, and the money, more than any other continent today. The Western World tends to think of Africa in terms of the images we see on TV. These images are full of small children with distended tummies as they sit on the dirt floors of their tiny huts trying to ignore the flies that gather around their starving and barely-clad bodies. As was pointed out by Enwezor (2005), a scholar on the subject of photojournalism, Ã¢â¬Å"The global media almost never depict contemporary Africans in ordinary situations; images of crisis frequently eclipse other representations.Ã¢â¬ Contrary to this impression, though, there are numerous Africans who live lives very similar to the experiences to be found in the West, complete with brick houses, running water and full-time electricity. However, the limited space available for international news combined with the desperate conditions of AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s poor have convinced many in the mainstream media that this poverty is where the attention should be focused. In the past, African countries have been rejected in their Olympic bids citing lack of appropriate facilities for hosting. However, some feel this is more rhetoric than reality. There are a number of more developed African cities preparing to make a bid for future Olympic Games. These include cities in Egypt and Kenya as well as the South African cities of Johannesburg, Cape Town and Durban. South Africa also has some precedent set regarding their ability to host larger events. Since 1994 (and the fall of Apartheid), the nation has hosted the Rugby World Cup, the African Cup of
Friday, August 23, 2019
Maternity module - Essay Example Pregnant women should also drink enough water to support blood volume increases and also to help avoid dehydration. Some supplements with folic acid and iodine are also recommended. Pregnant women should limit discretionary foods and drinks which has amount of saturated fats added salts and sugars. QUESTION 4. Develop a nutrition care plan for the patient with hyperemesis. Why does hyperemesis occur? (Hyperemesis Ã¢â¬â prolonged, persistent vomiting associated with an increase in the maternal free thyroid hormone) The exact cause of hyperemesis is unknown, but some of the contributing factors include: increased estrogen levels, high level of human chorionic gonadotropin and gastrointestinal changes associated with pregnancy. Other factors like stress and anxiety may trigger acute morning sickness. To control this condition, the pregnant women should include more protein and complex carbohydrate such as cheese, milk and nuts in their diet several times in a day. They should avoid food with fatty acid. It is also recommended that they drink plenty of water and get as much rest as possible. A. During Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome ovaries are formed that contain follicles with hormones that cause different changes in the woman bode. The disorders in women hormonal production during Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome usually cause women infertility in 75% of cases. The main reason of infertility during PCOS is anovulation, that occurs when ovaries do not release an oocyte and ovulation cannot occur. A. The risk of complication during pregnancies is higher in multiparity pregnancy. Study has shown that maternal mortality increases steadily from fifth to tenth pregnancy. Repeated births and breast feeding takes toll of the level of micronutrient in women body. For instance, Study has shown that 72% of multiparous women suffer from iron deficiencies. For women to go through pregnancy without iron deficiency, she should have mobilisable body iron stores of at least 500gm
Thursday, August 22, 2019
History of Civil Engineering Essay Civil engineering involves the design, construction, and maintenance of works such as roads, bridges, and buildings. Its a science that includes a variety of disciplines including soils, structures, geology, and other fields. Thus the history of civil engineering is closely associated with the history of advancement in these sciences. In ancient history, most of the construction was carried out by artisans, and technical expertise was limited. Tasks were accomplished by the utilization of manual labor only, without the use of sophisticated machinery, since it did not exist. Therefore, civil engineering works could only be realized with the utilization of a large number of skilled workers over an extended period of time. * Prehistoric and Ancient Civil Engineering Structures It might be appropriate to assume that the science of civil engineering truly commenced between 4000 and 2000 BC in Egypt when transportation gained such importance that it led to the development of the wheel. According to the historians, the Pyramids were constructed in Egypt during 2800-2400 BC and may be considered as the first large structure construction ever. The Great Wall of China that was constructed around 200 BC is considered another achievement of ancient civil engineering. The Romans developed extensive structures in their empire, including aqueducts, bridges, and dams. A scientific approach to the physical sciences concerning civil engineering was implemented by Archimedes in the third century BC, by utilizing the Archimedes Principle concerning buoyancy and the Archimedes screw for raising water. ASCE Online Library www.ascelibrary.org Free search 800,000 pages All areas of civil engineering Software Engineer Degree EducationDegreeSource.com/Free_Info 100%Online Master Degree Software Engineering for Busy Programmers! Seismic Design Group www.SeismicDesignGroup.com Seismic Bracing Engineering Commercial Non-Structural Trades Ads by Google * The Roles of Civil And Military Engineer in Ancient Times As stated above, civil engineering is considered to be the first main discipline of engineering, and the engineers were in fact military engineers with expertise in military and civil works. During the era of battles or operations, the engineers were engaged to assist the soldiers fighting in the battlefield by making catapults, towers, and other instruments used for fighting the enemy. However, during peace time, they were concerned mainly with the civil activities such as building fortifications for defense, making bridges, canals, etc. * Civil Engineering in the 18th 20th Century Until the recent era, there was no major difference between the terms civil engineering and architecture, and they were often used interchangeably. It was in the 18th century that the term civil engineering was firstly used independently from the term military engineering. The first private college in the United States that included Civil Engineering as a separate discipline was Norwich University established in the year 1819. Civil engineering societies were formed in United States and European countries during the 19th century, and similar institutions were established in other countries of the world during the 20th century. The American Society of Civil Engineers is the first national engineering society in the United States. In was founded in 1852 with members related to the civil engineering profession located globally. The number of universities in the world that include civil engineering as a discipline have increased tremendously during the 19th and the 20th centuries, indica ting the importance of this technology. * Modern Concepts In Civil Engineering Numerous technologies have assisted in the advancement of civil engineering in the modern world, including high-tech machinery, selection of materials, test equipment, and other sciences. However, the most prominent contributor in this field is considered to be computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM). Civil engineers use this technology to achieve an efficient system of construction, including manufacture, fabrication, and erection. Three-dimensional design software is an essential tool for the civil engineer that facilitates him in the efficient designing of bridges, tall buildings, and other huge complicated structures. * http://www.thecivilengg.com/History.php CIVIL ENGINEERING (CE) Overall Focus: Ã¢â¬Å"Public worksÃ¢â¬ /infrastructure and buildings/structures. Note: Given the number of potential applications, Civil Engineering is a very broad discipline. Primary Areas of Specialization: 1. Construction Management (combining engineering and management skills to complete construction projects designed by other engineers and architects). Ã 2. Environmental Engineering (see separate entry) 3. Geotechnical Engineering (analysis of soils and rock in support of engineering projects/applications building foundations, earthen structures, underground facilities, dams, tunnels, roads, etc) 4. Structural Engineering (design of all types of stationary structures buildings, bridges, dams, etc.) 5. Surveying (measure/map the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface in support of engineering design and construction projects and for legal purposes locating property lines, etc.) 6. Transportation Engineering (design of all types of transportation facilities/systems Ã¢â¬â streets/highways, airports, railroads, other mass transit, harbors/ports, etc.). 7. Water Resources Engineering (control and use of water, focusing on flood control, irrigation, raw water supply, and hydroelectric power applications) http://groups.yahoo.com/group/AR001_ARCHCRUZ/files/3.%20LETTERING/
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Reflective Journal Essay A reflective journal is a way of thinking in a critical and analytical way about your work in progress. It shows how different aspects of your work interconnect. The journal can record: Ã¢â¬ ¢ where your inspiration comes from Ã¢â¬ ¢ how you make use of your ideas to develop your work Ã¢â¬ ¢ your awareness of the cultural context (setting) in which you work This context includes: other artistsÃ¢â¬â¢ work and their ideas; the ideas of critics and theorists; social, political, aesthetic and ideological contexts. The journal could include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ research notes Ã¢â¬ ¢ personal comments on your own work Ã¢â¬ ¢ notes/images from gallery visits Ã¢â¬ ¢ quotes Ã¢â¬ ¢ extracts from lectures, tutorials, books, journals Ã¢â¬ ¢ photos/sketches Critical and analytical writing Critical writing involves many of the same processes as when reading. So what is Critical reading? To read critically is to make judgements about how a text is written and argued. This is a highly reflective skill requiring you to Ã¢â¬Ëstand backÃ¢â¬â¢ from the text you are reading. You might have to read a text through once to get a basic grasp of content before you launch into an intensive critical reading. These are the keys: Ã¢â¬ ¢ donÃ¢â¬â¢t read only for information (surface approach) Ã¢â¬ ¢ do read for clues about views and opinions (deep approach) This means: Ã¢â¬ ¢ comparing the same issue from different points of view Ã¢â¬ ¢ identifying an argument (analysis of ideas/opinions) in the text Ã¢â¬ ¢ identifying conclusions and spotting how different people arrive at different conclusions Ã¢â¬ ¢ deciding what you think, based on the evidence available Then, in your own writing: Ã¢â¬ ¢ look at the subject from different viewpoints Ã¢â¬ ¢ show a clear line of reasoning Ã¢â¬ ¢ present evidence to support your reasoning Ã¢â¬ ¢ be clea r what your conclusions are Here are some ways to help you read critically: Ã¢â¬ ¢ read beginning and end of text to get an overview Ã¢â¬ ¢ colour code different viewpoints Ã¢â¬ ¢ underline key words, phrases, or sentences Ã¢â¬ ¢ write comments in the margins (use stickers if itÃ¢â¬â¢s not your book) Ã¢â¬ ¢ bracket important sections of the text Ã¢â¬ ¢ show links with lines or arrows Ã¢â¬ ¢ number related points in sequence Reflective Writing What is reflective writing? Reflective writing is evidence of looking back at an event, idea, object, experience, process, etc It involves: Ã¢â¬ ¢ analysing and commenting on the object, process, etc from different points of view using contemporary ideas and theories Ã¢â¬ ¢ exploring and explaining the importance or relevance of the object, process, etc Ã¢â¬ ¢ considering things that went wrong as well as successes Ã¢â¬ ¢ saying what the object, process, etc means to you Ã¢â¬ ¢ saying how your learning will influence the way you work How to structure reflective writing 1 2 Description (donÃ¢â¬â¢t make this too long) What is it? What happened? Why am I talking about it? Interpretation What is important, relevant, interesting, useful? How is it similar to or different from others? How can it be explored, explained using contemporary theories? Outcome What have I learned from this? How will it influence my future work?
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Free Trade Agreement Between the GCC and ASEAN Executive Summary This paper is a consolidated report of surveys on key issues and concerns to trade and investment in an ASEAN-GCC free trade environment. The researchers were able to make a schema of most likely issues and concerns that would be deterrent to negotiations for a free trade agreement on the ASEAN and GCC zones. The consolidated report is based on an intensive literature review. As the ASEAN-GCC talks are still underway, the researchers thought it wiser to first create a schema for an enterprise survey which would assess the effectiveness as well as determine barriers which would inadvertently affect ASEAN-GCC free trade negotiations. A consolidated report on such factors would greatly benefit business enterprises as well as the government itself in that it provides a guidelines of expectations and, thus, this could be addressed early on. The report first discussed an overview of the GCC financial market to establish the market potentials and capacity of the region. The key issues and concerns that were gathered through research were then grouped accordingly to whether they fall under the tariff barriers or formal transaction cost issue, and the non-tariff barrier (NTB) or informal transaction cost issues. From the consolidated report, it was revealed that while tariff barriers or formal transaction costs affects trade and investment, it was the non-tariff barriers which generally costs companies a lot. Non-tariff barriers include red tape from getting business certifications, weak legal system especially in legal disputes and the like, enforcement of environmental policies, restrictions placed on ownership of equities and real estate, existence of laws which prohibits foreign nationals from applying for business permits, especially in areas outside the free trade zone. There also exists some political and/or diplomatic barriers. However, these should not be given to much focus as these contribute only a small amount of influence to the conduct of trade and investment. Area of Study This study on the free trade agreement between the ASEAN and GCC focuses on identifying issues and concerns that should be addressed in order for a free trade agreement between the GCC and the ASEAN to be useful and beneficial for all signatory parties. These issues and concerns are identified through extensive research and inference from previous studies and factual articles. However, issues that are only significant for the government and other stakeholders, but are not of particular important to the business sector (i.e., labor and environmental issues) were not considered. Background of the Problem Last June 30, 2009, a trade pact in the form of a memorandum of agreement (MOA) was signed between the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and the 10 country-members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (TradeArabia, 2009). The said MOA focuses on building a trade bloc between the GCC and ASEAN, and also explores the possibility of a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) and a free trade agreement (FTA). The trade pact was signed after the first successful GCC-ASEAN ministerial meeting held in Manama, Bahrain, wherein the ministers approved a two-year working plan in improving trade relations between GCC and ASEAN countries (TradeArabia, 2009; ArabNews.com, 2010). A trade and investment road map in the form of the GCC-ASEAN 2010-2010 action plan was adopted on the second GCC-ASEAN ministerial meeting held in Singapore in May 2010 (ArabNews.com, 2010; Press Trust of India/bilaterals.org, 2010; The Malaysian News Agency, 2010). In an article by the Press Trust of India (2010) as cited by bilaterals.org (2010), the GCC and ASEAN have agreed to further enhance trading and investment opportunities as well as collaboration in the areas of improving the economy, commercial and business enterprise, education whilst promoting mutual respect through culture and media by way of the ASEAN-GCC Two-Year Action Plan (2010-2012) . However, in the recent press release of the ASEAN Secretariat (www.asean.org, 2010) a free trade agreement between the two blocs was not brought up. Business Dictionary defines free trade agreement as a treaty between countries that essentially reduces tariffs and barriers on goods and services, although capital and/or labor may not move freely (businessdictionary.com). These agreements specify the rules and for trade between or among signatory countries (Sen, 2004, p. 1). Free trade means trade of goods and services (not necessarily capital and labor) between countries that is free from tariffs and other trade barriers imposed by the governments of those countries (Bhagwati, 2002, p.3). It is considered as the building block for economic integration in a region (Sen, 2004, p. 1). Free trade is based on the principle of comparative advantage first proposed by David Ricardo (Case Fair, 1999, pp. 812-818). Ricardos theory of comparative advantage asserts that countries could produce goods more efficiently if they specialized at producing the good(s) which they produce most efficiently and bought all other goods from other nations specializing in producing those goods (Case Fair, 1999, pp. 812-818). According to this theory, specialization will make production of goods more efficient and thus, bring down prices. Therefore, if goods can freely enter a country, advocates of free trade suggest consumers would benefit because of the lower prices of goods (C ase Fair, 1999, p. 818). WTO and other reports have stated that free trade agreements have started to proliferate between countries and even between trading blocs (Crawford and Fiorentino, 2005, p. 2; Razeen, 2006). Of regional trade agreements reported to the WTO as of 2005, 84 per cent are free trade agreements (Crawford and Fiorentino, 2005, p. 3). The WTO reports that the uncertainty of the fate of the Uruguay Round (1986-1994) has prompted countries to pursue their own preferential deals, mostly bilateral, or involving two countries, with other nations (Crawford and Fiorentino, 2005, p. 6). The more aggressive countries or trading blocs are the European Union, Australia, Japan, Singapore, New Zealand, and the United states and Canada. The ASEAN and the GCC are both lagging behind in creating deals, but the member countries, particularly of the ASEAN are forging their own FTAs with other countries such as Japan, South Korea, and China (Crawford and Fiorentino, 2005, pp. 6-8). It has been observed that trade among the Arab states has been relatively small compared to other regions (Hassan and Tarik, 2010). This is despite the observation that members of the GCC have common economic and social characteristics (Fasano and Iqbal, 2003). But the GCC is trying to catch up with regard to forming free trade agreements as a bloc with other countries and trading blocs (Hassan and Tarik, 2010). It has signed a free trade agreement (GSFTA) with Singapore in 2009 and has since experienced a growth in investments from and an increase in trade with this country. The GCC consists of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates and was formed in May 1981 (Fasano and Iqbal, 2003). Its aim is to promote cooperation and peace among member nations. The member countries of the GCC have all undergone diversification from dependence on oil into trade and services-centered economies. The GDP per capita in these countries are among the highest in the world (Fasano and Iqbal, 2003). The members of the ASEAN, however, have followed a different track. Instead of forming free trade agreements as a bloc, each individual member of the ASEAN has began to forge free trade agreements with other countries such as Japan, South, Korea, the United States, and Australia (Razeen, 2006). Singapore is the most aggressive of these countries, having signed a free trade agreement with the GCC in 2009 (iAdvisory, 2009). However, the region has started talks as a bloc for free trade agreements with China, Australia New Zealand, and the GCC (China Embassy, 2004; Xinhua, 2008; Tradearabia, 2009). The ASEAN was formed in 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand through the signing of the ASEAN Declaration by the five founding members, namely: Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore. It was later joined by Brunei Darussalam in 1984, Vietnam in 1995, Lao PDR and Myanmar in 1997, and finally, Cambodia in 1999. Thus, today ASEAN has ten member countries (ASEAN website). With the signing of the memorandum of agreement between the GCC and ASEAN for in 2009 (Tradearabia, 2009) and the adoption of the ASEAN-GCC Two-Year Action Plan in 2010, trade and finance officials in these two regions are still on the verge of devising such an agreement that would be agreeable to all involved. The Joint Vision in 2009 built the economic partnership between the two regions on the following areas: economic, cultural, scientific and social, and aims to promote people-to-people contacts. On the other hand, the two-year action plan expands its cooperation and collaboration along the areas of trade and investment, economic and developmental cooperation, education and training, culture and information, and mutual consultation in international matters (ASEAN Secretariat, 2010). Research Objectives The researchers believe that this paper would be timely as it attempts to point out possible key issues and concerns that the business enterprise might come up against in operating within the GCC. It is a fact that business organizations and companies are the driving forces behind trade. Thus, the point of view of these organizations will have to be considered for a free trade agreement to prosper. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify possible issues and concerns that should be addressed in order for a free trade agreement between the GCC and the ASEAN to be useful and beneficial for all signatory parties. Issues that could be significant for the government and other stakeholders, but are not of particular important to the business community (for example, labor and environmental issues), will not be considered. Expected Outcome Through this research, we hope to uncover key issues that are seen by businesses in both the ASEAN and the GCC as roadblocks to free trade between the two regions. We anticipate that lack of information about each others markets, and the convoluted regulatory policies of each region will be primary concerns. Also, the unification of standards for export products, particularly in the electronic sector may be another crucial issue. These concerns will be discussed in detail. The literature will also be consulted for possible solutions on how to address the issues. Such possible solutions will be incorporated in the conclusion and recommendations portion of the paper. Methods of Examination Literature Review Due to time constraints, the researchers opted to use literature review as a method for identifying key issues and concerns in the GCC-ASEAN free trade agreement, particularly with regard to trade and other aspects that affect it such as cultural, political, and social environments, will be reviewed in order to identify possible issues and challenges that would be stumbling blocks to reaching a beneficial trade agreement. Research and statistical material on the effects of free trade agreements forged by GCC with other countries, regions, or trading blocs will also be examined to determine issues that have emerged, if any, in these free trade agreements. The same shall be made with regard to the agreements forged by the ASEAN and its member countries with other nations or trading blocs. Techniques and Strategies Used Descriptive analysis such as frequency counts, means, percentages and was used in describing the consolidated report about the identified key issues and concerns surround the GCC-ASEAN free trade agreement. These literature were gathered from published journals, news articles, magazine articles, e-zine and the like. The need to consolidate the information gathered from these materials are very important in order to show a general picture of the key issues and concerns plaguing the business enterprise operating within the GCC-ASEAN free trade agreement. And, thus, inference can be drawn. From the consolidated report, a conceptual framework could be sufficiently drawn, providing a springboard for an intensive enterprise survey in order to assess the effectiveness of the GCC-ASEAN free trade. Analysis and Findings This section describes the literature review conducted by the researchers. In this review, variables under consideration are scrutinized and discussed through presentation of relevant articles focusing on a GCC-ASEAN partnership. The presentation begins with an overview of the GCC as potential target market, followed by a brief discussion of both formal and informal transaction costs in the international marketing scene as variables considered for a successful trading agreement. After which is an analysis of the foreign direct investments (FDI) of the regions concerned so as to assess and somehow predict a successful trade agreement should the key issues and concerns be identified and addressed. The GCC Financial Market The Arab world is characterized by five attributes that have allowed it to benefit from the favourable international economic conditions. First, it owns the worlds largest deposits of energy. It has 58 per cent of all known raw oil reserves and 27 per cent of all proven natural gas reserves. (IMF Country Report, 2009). Second, the Arab world benefits greatly from international remittances. Ratha, Mohapatra and Silwal (2009) in the World Bank Migration and Development Brief 10, cited that the Arab world as a whole again benefited more than other world regions when international remittances quadrupled in 2000-2008. Third, Arab countries have benefited from the global boom in tourism during 2002-2008. Fourth, Arab countries accumulate a lions share of total global development assistance (World Bank, 2009). Fifth, Arab countries accumulated substantial foreign assets of more than US$2500 per inhabitant in 2006 (IMF, 2009). In a study conducted by Zarrouk (2001) entitled A Survey of Barriers to Trade and Investment in Arab Countries wherein a total of 230 companies, which represent the manufacturing and service sectors of Egypt, Gaza-West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia and the UAE, it was revealed that the trading barriers are most intensive in Gaza-West Bank with a mean of 2.0, followed by Syria (mean = 2.1), Egypt (mean = 2/41), Tunisia (mean = 2.43) and Saudi Arabia (mean = 2.8). Zarrouk (2001) describes the mean score from a scale of 1 (extremely problematic) to 4 (not problematic) (please refer to the table adapted from Zarrouk, 2001). From the result of the study of Zarrouk (2010) it can be inferred that Saudi Arabia figured as a country, wherein an FTA might prove challenging. As to the areas or indicators of what might these trade barriers be. Zarrouk (2010) identified these barriers. First, his study revealed that: Saudi has visa restrictions for business visits There exists local agency laws which allows Saudi nationals only to register for business and to be an agent of a foreign company Saudi customs are biased on Arab-made products but are more lenient to Asian, North American, and European products On the subject of transaction costs, Zarrouk (2010) business enterprises were interviewed as to whether these were not costly (value of 1) to prohibitive (value of 4). It was found out that customs duties and other import charges (mean score of 3.0) ranked first followed by domestic taxes (mean score of 2.6), customs clearance (mean score of 2.5), public sector corruption (mean score of 2.4), inspection/conformity certification (mean score of 2.2), transshipment regulatory measures (mean score of 2.1), and business visa restrictions (mean score of 1.8). Please see table below (adapted from Zarrouk, 2001). When the companies were interviewed about the most restrictive constraints to trade and investment, the study revealed that a primary obstacle is the weak legal system that fail to ensure that the terms of business contracts are honored (Zarrouk, 2001; Abdel-latif, 1992). Second in rank is the restrictive local agency law granting business permits only to nationals. In a similar vein, Newquist (1994) hints in his article for Computer World entitled Breaking a Barrier to Trade that cultural values play a role in trade and investment. For instance, he said that ethnocentricity weakens trade. In a free trade agreement wherein foreign nationals are invited to invest in the region, this factor would have a very negative effect indeed. Third in rank as most restrictive is that foreign nationals are prohibited ownership of real estate. This means that foreign investors have less opportunities of staying longer in Arab countries, thus, the cost of transferring to and fro their home country w ould be quite expensive. In relation to this, Arab countries also puts limits on foreign ownership of equities thus this would mean a slow expansion and growth of businesses. Sadly, corruption, bureaucracy and bad governance also figures in the trade barriers identified by Zarrouk (2001). Meanwhile, less transparent and complex tax systems and para-tariffs were also included in the list of most restrictive barriers. The GCC has been engaging in trade agreements with countries other than the ASEAN. For instance, they also have a free trade agreement with the EU, the NAFTA, the WTO, and GAFTA in as much as it enjoys bilateral trade relations with a host of other countries as Japan, South Korea, China, Singapore and its neighboring Arab countries. Zarrouk (2001) also attempted to interview the business enterprises with regard to the free trade agreements signed by their respective governments. It was revealed in the study (Zarrouk, 2001) that among the trade barriers to a companys growth according to the respondent companies are: There is a lack of clear-cut orientation with regards to free trade agreement benefits given to the business enterprises; Government agencies do not make enough effort to inform the public about the benefits of the agreements; Competition from Asian countries is much stronger, offsetting the benefits of the agreements Implementation problems: Partner countries do not commit to terms and conditions of the agreements Articles of some agreements are left to the interpretation of customs officials Trade agreements do not reduce the numerous administrative procedures, paperwork and red tape Implementation of certain articles of the agreements is not reciprocal Transportation between Arab countries is inadequate. Considering these results of the study of Zarrouk (2001) with specific reference effective free trade barrier which states that Competition from Asian countries is much stronger, offsetting the benefits of the agreements a free trade agreement between the GCC and the ASEAN is highly workable. This is backed up by a shared trading history that have been shared by both regions (Press Trust India, 2010; The Malaysian National News, 2010; Reuters, 2010). Transaction Costs In Economics, a transaction cost is cost associated with exchange of goods or services and incurred in overcoming market imperfections (BusinessDictionary.com). Also known as frictional costs, these are fees and charges incidental to buying, selling, and trading which includes transportation costs, legal fees, communications charges, and even opportunity costs in taking up time and energy in putting up a business venture. As cited by Abdel-Latif (1992), transaction costs cover a wide range of transactions from the conceptualization of putting up an investment until the actual running of the business itself. Generally, transaction costs include: the costs of obtaining information about market conditions in any given foreign market (the quantities and qualities desired and the prices prevailing for each different quality) and the reciprocal costs for agents in foreign countries; the costs of information about government regulations and other policies in both foreign and home markets (including exchange rate policy, exchange restrictions, tariff and non-tariff barriers, and health and environmental regulations); the costs to each potential party of identifying appropriate trading partners in these markets; the costs of negotiating, writing, and enforcing contracts and resolving disputes between the parties; and the costs of financing the transaction, which generally involves a long lag between placing an export order and making final payment for it, and of bearing the risks of default throughout the process. Abdel-Latif (1992) further corroborates that these transactions costs are affected by several factors which includes: differences in language, culture and taste, laws and dispute resolution procedures, income and information sources, the modus operandi of markets, and the extent and character of competition, difficulties of enforcing contracts across countries, and hence the higher risks of payment default. However, these factors are dynamic and changes over time along with the changes in organizational structure, advent of new policies and regulations, use of technology in communications, transportation, and other aspects of the dynamic societal structure whether environmental, socioeconomic, political or cultural. Other factors which may give rise to transaction costs are what is known as asymmetry of information which is elemental to any business relationship. For example, at the level of the rules and regulations, countries may want conditions to look different than they really are or may be unwilling to enforce existing laws. Likewise, the agents responsible for implementing the rules may have little incentive to do so and indeed may have the incentive to leave the interpretation of these rules sufficiently ambiguous so as to generate rents for themselves. Even more relevant and important, each potential trading partner has better information about his own characteristics and propensities (appropriate to defining the terms of the contract) than does the other party, inducing adverse self-selection for any given terms. (Abdel-Latif, 2001) Theoretically, any contract between trading partners details enough fine points for a working partnership to thrive. However, in reality, the details of these contractswhich includes threshing out possible roadblocks as well as scrutinizing everything takes up a lot of time and discussions, and most often ends in stalemate. Thus, the costs of drawing up a very detailed and comprehensive trading pact whose interpretation is transparent and accurate are quite expensive. Moreover, there is a time lag in having these agreements move to and fro the business partners and, thus, there is a likelihood of it being exposed to risks as moral hazards and resorting to shortcut methods in order to get through a deal. Transaction costs in the communications and in dispensing information are exposed to a host of other factors like insufficient insurance systems to keep the transactions private in order to protect the enterprise practices, the non-existence of competitive markets who should have been able to provide services such as that in information and enforcement costs for the reason that there already exists a specified role for an intermediary providing the aforementioned services. Thus, the scenario is that there is a monopoly of the services and upon which the government base its trade intervention and other regulations. Once a business enterprise engages itself in a contract it exposes itself to risks. Hence, after engaging in a contract both parties would naturally protect itself from these purported risks by seeking insurance. Moreover, when the company seeks this insurance it presents itself to an asymmetry of information wherein both parties fall into excessive negotiation costs as well as lags in time which further results to attempt a moral hazard and become opportunistic (Abdel-Latif, 1992). The upside of this is that the degree and magnitude of these problems in transaction costs depends on the salient features of the business in the region, on the regions conducting trade and investment itself, the companies or enterprise involved in the transaction, and even the socio-political and environmental conditions itself. Furthermore, the enterprise itself may just well revive itself and find its own innovative solutions to get over these problems (Abdel-Latif, 1992). Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Foreign direct investment or FDI refers to any form of investment that earns interest in enterprises which functions outside the domestic territory of the investor (Graham Spaulding, 2010). An FDI calls for a business partnership between a parent company and its foreign subsidiary. The presence of multinational companies concretizes a foreign direct investment. There are two categories of FDIs, inward FDIs and outward FDIs, which depends on the kinds of restrictions the government requires business enterprises to follow. Outward FDIs are direct investments abroad, which requires tax incentives and/or disincentives, and which the government tries to guard from probable risks of any form (Graham Spaulding, 2010). Aside from the classification, a foreign direct investment is motivated by a lucrative market, presence of resources, and efficiency in operating a business in the region (Graham Spaulding, 2010). In any case, a successful free trade agreement between regions base most of its terms and conditions in these three motives. These three motivations are already present in a partnership with GCC and ASEAN. As it is, both regions are said to be complementing each other in the sense that ASEAN countries have a need for the oil industry of the GCC and the GCC countries have a need for the resources, particularly the agricultural sector, for itself. With the advent of new technology developments, more and more companies have been establishing foreign direct investments (Spaulding Graham, 2010). This is partly because communications as well as transportation costs have decidedly become cheaper as compared in the past (Graham Spaulding, 2010). UNCTAD reports that there is an increase in the yearly FDI flow from an average of $10 billion dollars to $20 billion within a decade (from 1970s to 1980s). This growth further hit the roof from $26.7 billion in 1990 to $179 billion in 1998. The amount doubled to $208 billion in 1999. At present, FDIs comprise a bulky portion of global businesses. Satsuya (2009) revealed in his article that among the issues that hinder foreign direct investments, particularly in Malaysia and Thailand, runs parallel with foreign ownership of companies. In the telecommunications sector, distribution and commercial banking, foreign ownership is narrowed to 30 percent. Malaysia limits foreign ownership to industries that have to do with financial industries to 49 percent while foreign banks are only permitted to set up one other branch with a limited number of personnel. But these limitations are not only true with the ASEAN countries like Malaysia and Thailand. Some of the GCC members, like the Saudi Arabia, also imposes its limitations of foreign ownership of real estate and equities. In fact, this corroborates with the study of Zarrouk (2001) wherein he says that Saudi Arabia ranks among those with severe restrictions on foreign ownership in the country. On the other hand, in Bahrain, foreign distribution services could well put up several distribution branches in the country but they are not allowed to participate in direct commercial sales like wholesale and retail. Though the UAE is more friendly to foreign investors offering 100 percent ownership in free trade zones, such as Abu Dhabi, it limits foreign ownership to 49 percent outside the free trade zones. Thus, foreign industry expansions are still limited. Meanwhile, the telecommunications sector remain off limits to foreign ownership as well as the granting of licenses to any foreign bank t o operate as a full-fledged financial institution. Key Issues and Concerns Identified by Independent Papers Along the domestic spheres, Sasuya (2009) identified these factors which the government enforces in order to safeguard most of its defunct local commerce, and thereby contributing to the evolution of trade and investment in the region. Some of these measures involve dependence on subsidies, setting up of importation quotas and exacting high taxes on imports. By so doing, while the GCC and ASEAN regions inadvertently protects its industries from trade it also prevents foreign investments from entering the picture (Sasuya, 2009). In the same manner, it is because of these trade defensive measures that there are deadlocks on negotiations such as a free trade agreement which generally banks in reducing tariffs on imports. For instance, when Japan and South Korea started negotiating a free trade agreement with Thailand, Malaysia and the Philippines, angst rose from the terms regarding its agricultural tariffs and issues arising from full-ownership of an agricultural company of a foreign n ational also emerged, especially from the Thai end. According to the Commerce Minister Somkid Jatusripitak, who was also its Deputy Prime Minister, their refusal to bring down tariff on rice imports is due to the fact that 70 percent of the Thais are rice farmers (Satsuya, 2009). In Malaysia, this barrier is much more extensive. With the Malaysian government instigating its Bumiputera development policy, which operates in favor of the ethnic Malay majority who incidentally belong to borderline economy, thereby affecting not only trade but the flow of foreign direct investments. Thus, by refusing to reduce tariffs on rice imports the government is actually protecting its constituents but is, in a way, increasing the transaction costs incurred by this particular deadlock. In the manufacturing sector, high tariffs also act as trade barriers. In Malaysia for instance, automobile imports have high taxes to protect its local automobile industry, Proton. Even if the Thais do not manufacture any automobiles, the country is sponsoring the industry as part of its industrialization scheme in which they envision becoming an auto manufacturing center. Meanwhile, the textile industry is also shielded in the sense that it imposes 20-30 percent tax on all imports (Satsuya, 2009). There exists a statistical relationship between trade influx and political climate. According to Bergeijk (1992) a country with good diplomatic relations also increases its chances of getting bilateral business trades as well as drawing in foreign investors. However, the researcher also warns not to put too much emphasis on this variable as it has less contribution than other economic variables. Nevertheless, the fact that it contributes some amount of influence on the way companies conduct their business should not be discarded. Aside from political and diplomatic relations, a separate study finds that environmental constraints in the form of policies of the region also act as a trade barrier (Kohn, 2003). For instance, if and when a foreign investor should want to import a product which proves to be more polluting than the existing domestic product, the company woul
MIAMI NOIR We have much to learn from Mike Davis, CITY OF QUARTZ (Vintage, 1992) who discusses the paradoxical effects that the representations of Los Angeles in hardboiled novels and their translation into film noir cinema had on the image and myth of that city. Together they radically reworked the metaphorical figure of the city, using the crisis of the middle class (rarely the workers or the poor) to expose how the dream had become nightmare. . . . It is hard to exaggerate the damage which noir's dystopianization of Los Angeles, together with the exiles' [European intellectuals living and working in L.A.] denunciation of its counterfeit urbanity, inflicted upon the accumulated ideological capital of the region's boosters. Noir, often in illicit alliance with San Francisco or New York elitism, made Los Angeles the city that American intellectuals love to hate (although, paradoxically, this seems only to increase its fascination for postwar European intellectuals). As Richard Lehan has emphasized, "probably no city in the Western world has a more negative image". . . . It is hard to avoid the conclusion that the paramount axis of cultural conflict in Los Angeles has always been about the construction/interpretation of the city myth, which en ters the material landscape as a design for speculation and domination (Davis, 20-21). Miami, most notably in the works of Elmore Leonard and Charles Willeford, and in the Television series MIAMI VICE, has received some of the same treatment, belatedly, or in a post- or neo- noir modality of the genre. . As Davis noted, "noir was like a transformational grammar turning each charming ingredient of the boosters' arcadia into a sinister equivalent" (38). We need to sort out those aspects of this noir/booster conflict that are generic and those that are specific to Miami. Boosterism is a fundamental feature of Miami's existence. The same paradoxes of attraction are an important part of Florida tourism. However, noir carries with it a state of mind, an atmosphere and mood, that are specific to the genre and may or may not have anything to do with the spirit of place specific to our zone. In any case, we should keep in mind that a book about the mythical America of crime writers includes some discussion of the Miami River setting. The Interviewer, John Williams, spoke with James Hall, author of the hard-boiled SQUALL LINE, as they rode in Hall's boat on the bay near the river's mouth.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Over 46 million abortions are performed worldwide each year. Today, 11,000 frozen human embryos are stored in Australia alone. Human embryos are being killed in experiments and tossed out into the trash like moldy food in your refrigerator. Euthanasia has become legal and practiced in many countries, as well as the death penalty where there have even been cases of innocent people put to death. Taking birth control pills is becoming as common as popping in some Tylenol for a headache and handing out condoms in school is like handing out candy. One out of every ten U.S. teenaged girls becomes pregnant every year and fourteen thousand of those girls are under the age of fourteen (National Research Council, Risking the Future: Adolescent Sexuality, Pregnancy and Childbearing, p. 507). Divorce, aggression, abuse and unhappiness are on the rise. We are turning our society into a culture of death, where human life is being disregarded and disrespected. The superior natur al right that each human being possesses, the right to life, is so often being violated. How do we keep ourselves from falling totally down the slope of death and destruction? How far will we go before we speak out to put an end to it? Will we go as far as human cloning as a normal practice, because the path we are heading on now is definitely leaning in that direction? This is an intricate and complicated problem that we find ourselves in, but I think, as for every problem, we need to seek its roots in order to fix it. I believe that one of the roots of this culture of death is the common use and acceptance of artificial contraception. I would not only like to argue its immorality from a religious standpoint but also from a purely ethical view a... ...gainst the use of artificial contraceptives I feel are convincing enough to condemn artificial contraception as morally and intrinsically wrong. The Catholic Church teaches that because it is abortive in some cases, unnatural, and takes God out of the act of love, it is a sin. From an ethical standpoint, because it goes against nature and disrupts the two purposes of sex, intimacy and procreation, artificial contraception is morally wrong. To view artificial contraception this way would be a huge step in respecting human life and above all, the right to life of all human beings no matter what stage in development that human being might be in. Let us put an end to murdering our future generation and start taking responsibility for our actions. Works Cited National Research Council, Risking the Future: Adolescent Sexuality, Pregnancy and Childbearing, p. 507
Sunday, August 18, 2019
In 1966 a series called "Star Trek" was created. It's creator, Gene Roddenberry, did not create the show to be a science fiction series. The series was much deeper than that. It wasn't just about discovering new planets and civilizations. It was about controversial issues. Even though the series' take place in the 23rd and 24th century the issues struck with the times and related current issues. Through each series, The Original, Next Generation, Deep Space Nine and Voyager, there has been progression with the times and the issues. The issues that surround the episodes of Star Trek include race, religion, sexuality, the depiction of science and gender roles. The central focus being talked about in this paper will be gender roles. Gender roles in Star Trek deal with leadership and sexuality. Men and women have had different roles in Star Trek as well as different progressions. Men in Star Trek have always had a leadership role. In the original series the four main characters are men. The captain, Kirk, the second in command, Spock, the doctor, Bones or McCoy, and the head engineering officer Scotty are all men. In the Next Generation series there is Captain Picard, the second in command, Riker, and there are others engineering roles played by Warf and Data who are all men. In the Deep Space Nine series Captain Sisko and the head engineer is male. In Voyager the second in command, Chakotay, as well as Tuvok, a Vulcan Spock like character, and Neelix, the cook are all men. Women in Star Trek have made a real progression, at least more then Men have. When men are already at the top having leadership roles there's no place to go but down. This isn't necessarily there work performance or merit is going down but the women's performance, merit and acceptance going up. The women of Star Trek started at the bottom and could only go up. The original series did have one woman in a starring role. Uhura was the head communication officer, however her role was really more of a secretary and didn't really have many lines and if she did they weren't very lengthy, nothing much more than, "Yes captain." In the Next Generation series the women started to move farther up the leadership ladder. The women starring roles were Beverly Crusher, the doctor, and Diana Troy, the counselor. In Deep Space Nin... ...s. Women usually aren't as forward and her forwardness gives the essence of a male fantasy, the female making the moves on the male. Males and females are almost in pursuit of a mate, however males are usually the gender that make the first move. When the female shows immediate and obvious signs of interest, males in general think of it as something with no real challenge and therefore no real commitment. This presents a good time for the crowd of men in 10 Forward. Sexuality plays a big part in gender roles. In Star Trek Next Generation one of biggest issues is gender roles. Sexuality has played a little role in Star Trek. It showed a woman who's only purpose in life was for procreation. Although her actions were abnormal for a woman, it is the only real purpose of both genders. Survival is the goal of both genders and that is done through procreation. Also, men have always had leadership roles in Star Trek since the beginning of the series. Women, however have had to work there way up the leadership ladder. Their roles have been equal to the times or slightly pushing forward a bit, which has been the most important part of gender roles in Star Trek.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
We all like games and sports because they are essential for a healthy life. They play an important role in the development of our personality. Therefore they are given great importance almost all over the world. They are an important part of our education. This is the reason that every educational institute holds a sports week. Honorable principle! Sports and games are indication of life full of joys. They keep a person healthy and fit. Sports provide us a mean of physical exercise. My friends! Some special games like hockey, cricket and football not only make our body sound and healthy but also provide us a source of amusement and entertainment. As we have seen the excitements and rejoice of the World cup 2011. These games create cheerfulness not only in the players but also in the visitors. People gather around in thousands to see a match. They praise the players and clap for them. In this way they create an atmosphere of happiness, rejoicing, joyfulness and brotherhood. Respected Mam! Sports are also great moral value. They teach us team sprit. The p[layers play not to win personal fame but for the team. Sports and games teach us cooperation and discipline. Players obey the orders of their captain and the Umpire without any question. They have training in getting defeat with a good heart. Mam! These values are of much in every day life. Sports teach us to become good citizens. Hence I am compelled to say that sports play a vital role in our life.
Friday, August 16, 2019
In the 1920s, many Americans were trying to achieve the infamous Ã¢â¬Å"American Dream.Ã¢â¬ The dream was to be rich, successful, happy, and one of the social elites. However, even though this was the dream for Americans in the 1920s, the general standard has changed over the years into the present time. Since the 1920s, the dream of putting a high emphasis on an individualistic and materialistic life has evolved into a present day dream of working hard, holding a well-paying job, and raising a family. The 1920s was an era of declined social and moral values, as shown by its increased pursuit of pleasure. When World War I ended in 1918, the young Americans who had fought the war became deeply disillusioned, as the battles that they had just fought in made the Victorian social morality of the early 1920s seem like hypocrisy. This caused those that had fought in the war to not care as much about upholding traditional morals. Also, since World War I was the Ã¢â¬Å"war to end all wars,Ã¢â¬ Americans were quite optimistic during the 1920s. The uncontrolled satisfaction that led to self-indulgent parties and wild jazz music resulted ultimately in the corruption of the American dream, as the uninhibited desire for pleasure exceeded other, less important goals. AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ pursuit of pleasure in the 1920s resulted ultimately in a decline in values. Many of the values of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s dream are similar to those of the 1920s. The dream today does consist of pleasure and happiness. However, the dream of the 1920s was to put a much stronger emphasis on it than todayÃ¢â¬â¢s dream does. The values and morals today are also more widely accepted by the general public. An example of this is women wearing bathing suits to a public beach. In the 1920s, it was bad enough that those bathing suits were even the l east bit revealing. Today, however, it is perfectly acceptable for women to wear bikinis to a public beach, which are much more revealing than those of the 1920s. This is because the standard has gradually changed over time. Many of the values of the 1920s were extremely new and deviated from the norm greatly. The Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ values crashed right into the 1920s with the emergence of the flapper, a new generation of women who bobbed their hair, wore short skirts, and listened to jazz music. People had no time to adapt to these values. On the other hand, the values of the modern American dream were gradually incorporated. Americans today have been around these values long enough that they are now accustomed to them. During the 1920s, family life was both similar and different than it is now. Advancements in industrial production and technology enabled ordinary Americans to acquire what once had been unattainable luxuries, such as automobiles. These luxuries that were part of everyday family life in the 1920s are still part of the dream today. There are, however, differences between family life of the 1920s and modern family life. In the 1920s, husbands were the Ã¢â¬Å"breadwinnersÃ¢â¬ for their families. While the men were at work, their wives cooked, cleaned, and looked after the home. Wives also did most of the raising of the children. Women in the 1920s did hold jobs, but that was something more for young, single women. Married women typically did not obtain a job because it would cause them to take their focus off of taking care of their family. The dream today is that both men and women perform equal shares of raising the family. Instead of just the men holding jobs, women also hold jobs today. Instead of just the women caring for the home and children, men also take part. Through these efforts, Americans can hope to achieve the part of the dream of raising a family. Throughout the 1920s, Americans went on a spending spree. The rise of the stock market led to a sudden increase in the national wealth and created a society full of materialism. People began to consume and spend more than ever, and they had the idea that money and popularity would solve everything. A person from any social background could, potentially, strike a fortune. Speculators and industrialists who achieved the American dream in the 1920s of Ã¢â¬Å"getting richÃ¢â¬ were labeled the Ã¢â¬Å"new money.Ã¢â¬ The aristocracy disliked the new money. The so-called Ã¢â¬Å"old money,Ã¢â¬ families that had always had money that was passed down from generation to generation, felt that the Ã¢â¬Å"get rich quickÃ¢â¬ ways of earning money were not as fulfilling as the traditional ways. Today, money is valued differently than it was in the 1920s. The dream is not centered so much around money as it used to be. Yes, money is still just as important, but people nowadays keep other goals in mind other than just earning money. The dream today consists of having a job that pays well and that is enjoyable, not just a job that only pays well. Another part of the American dream that women had in the 1920s was equal rights with men. The ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, which allowed women the right to vote, helped them come even closer to having equal rights with men. In the dream today, women seem to not be as concerned about womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights as they did in the 1920s. This is due to the fact that most of the work that needed to be done has already been done, such as the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights movement and the ratification of the nineteenth amendment. Today, on average, women earn 77 cents for every dollar that men earn. Women still hold far less ownership, CEO, and other high positions within companies than men. These two facts are evidence that work still remains in the struggle for equal rights for women. However, women definitely came a long way and it is only a matter of time before they are equal with men, for most of the work has already been done. In the 1920s, there seems to have been an American dream that everyone was trying to achieve. Many people looked and some still do look toward this as a model for their own individual American dreams. However, even though this might have been the dream for many Americans in the 1920s, the general standard sure has changed over the years into the present time. Since the 1920s, the dream of putting a high emphasis on Ã¢â¬Å"materialisticÃ¢â¬ life has evolved into a present day dream of working hard, holding a well-paying job, and raising a family.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Globalization has had a positive impact on planning in Wal-mart organization. This is because Wal-mart stakeholders are able to estimate the profit it can make by allowing its cheaply manufactured and inexpensive goods and services to cross the borders and reach other countries of the world. (James, 1999) defines industry attractiveness as the prevailing situation in the core business of an organization which favors the specific organization for example in monotheistic business environment, a business is more likely to be favor in terms of business performance since it can manipulate market forces to its advantage. Even in a market environment, less than 4 competitors are likely to influence the market situation to their advantage hence creating an attractive market environment. Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s performance has been termed as sterling by many business analysts. The chain has recorded a profit after taxes of above $200 billion. By applying concepts like vendor managed inventories as well as just-in-time concept, Wal-Mart has continued to maintain leadership in the retail market in the US. Wal-Mart endeavors to remain a low-cost retailer, and by that it has been very effective in maintaining market attractiveness. By all means Wal-Mart has achieved low cost retail prices mostly because it manages to source goods at the best possible market prices. This is possible through the strategy of replenishing stock daily in which it allows its key suppliers to access data on sales, which in turn ensures that stocks are supplied just in time. Wal-Mart has successfully cut expenses in that it is able to save costs which would otherwise have gone to hiring warehouses, paying for the storage and security of the goods in warehouses, the costs which goes with insurance as well as the risk of destruction resulting from fire, and other natural calamities as well as expiry of perishable goods. By paying the suppliers based on what is sold the company ensures a zero cost in inventories, this in turns affords the company an opportunity to lower prices since there are less expenditures. In long term, this contributes to industry attractiveness. The other area in which the company has achieved competitive advantage is in terms of adapting information systems. By doing that, Wal-Mart, has become a low cost producer in that it achieves effectiveness and therefore minimizing losses. The organization has set out to be a market leader. In terms of incorporating information technology, Wal-Mart has computerized its purchasing systems to incorporate E-purchasing. As a purchasing strategy, e-purchasing is economically reliable and cost effective. Compared to a competitor who does have not adopted the e-purchasing concept, Wal-mart has been able to save a lot of money and time. According to (Kendel, 2004), competitive advantage also depends on how companies utilize and take advantage of the buyer power. To this end, Wal-Mart has outshone all its competitors in that, it is refuted to be one of the organizations in the US, which has been able to get suppliers to act according to its terms. In fact some have argued that, it manipulates and coerces suppliers to enter into concessions, which end up benefiting the retailer but harming the suppliers. In terms of the threat of substitutes, it is widely believed that, Wal-Mart no longer competes with any one, it has taken virtual control and is a major player of the US economy leave alone the retail business. In terms of supplier power, the suppliers are no longer able to contain the pressure from Wal-Mart; there have been reports of CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s agreeing to terms, which end up harming their businesses. Wal-Mart as earlier mentioned often coerces its suppliers into deals, this is not the case with its competitors which do not necessarily have the power to match it. Finally Wal-Mart unlike so many of its rivals have been able to penetrate with ease and so far commands a good share of the retail business in the US. However, it is Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s expansive sales returns that continue to put it ahead of competitors in that, they can powerfully bargain with suppliers for best offers, which on their part the competitors cannot match. By integrating IT through out the whole retail chain Wal-mart ensures that, its partners are free and feel respected and therefore trade is done in an environment of cordial relationships. With a retail network of over 140 branches all over the world, the management styles as well Wal-Mart's purchasing, distribution and warehousing, in-store operations, marketing, Information Technology, Human Resource Management, and organization and management systems/style have to be maintained at a high notch. Otherwise, it would be impossible for the outlets to achieve unity of purpose. With such a huge work force, success can only be achieved only if there is proper human resource management. The organization has introduced performance based pay, which has gone down very well with the employees. A well motivated staff is the greatest asset for a company and therefore Wal-Mart has been able to achieve that through introducing modern employee management systems which aims at ensuring that, the best staff are retained and also that, staff get well compensated for their hard-work. This has given Wal-Mart a cutting edge advantage, in that, it is able to attract and keep the best workers. In terms of supplies, Wal-Mart has been able to cut lead time after streamlining its supply chain management. By doing that, Wal-Mart have come to be regarded as the industries leaders in terms of efficiency and cost cutting. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest retailer with over $200 billion worthy of annual sales. The organization has adopted various strategies to become and remain a market leader in the industry. Of all strategies, it is its low cost of products that has made the biggest contribution to its market attractiveness as well as its competitive advantage. Human resource management. According to available statistics, the company has over 1. 3 million employees also known as associates, it is spends a lot on employee development something which gives it a competitive edge as one of the most preferred employers. Wal-Mart has been ranked by the Fortune magazine as one of the most admired places in the world. This translates to attractiveness to both business partners and customers. Also as a strategy in supplies management the organization has avoided reliance on single suppliers but has instead engaged different suppliers. This helps in ensuring that, the suppliers do not dictate the terms since they are aware that they can be substituted. This is effective in that, it becomes very hard for suppliers to collaborate and decide the terms for the organization. Wal-Mart also ensures proper communication through the setting up of a satellite network, which interlinks all its branches to a central command. This has seen the company investing heavily in information technology, which in return has ensured that the company achieves economies of scale. Competitive advantage. Kmart is one of the key competitors which has found the going getting tough and has almost been left struggling to remain in business. The fact that, Wal-Mart controls over 70% of the retail business clearly shows that, the competition is not as stiff. Therefore, Wal-Mart is poised to remain a force even into the foreseeable future. The threats which it should deal with and undertake to solve include: negative publicity in that, the fact that it drives many other businesses out of business can lead to harmful price wars which could lead to the company loosing its current market share. Management Systems Several, problems and challenges such as shoplifting caused the company to invest in costly surveillance systems aimed at addressing the arising issues. Managers at Wal-Mart are motivated in that, the organization always rewards creativity and effort as well as originality. This has been a plus for the company as productivity is always related with highly motivated staff as well as employees who can identify well with the organization. Its people-friendly approach has led to such a good relationships with customers that, a very loyal client base has been achieved. By adopting new technology, production, administration and leadership in the company are one of the best in the world. The styles from other successful organizations of the world so that it can experience great success. Wal-Mart has now heavily invested in technology like computerized tracking systems, which enables them to track supply and monitor progress. Wal-Mart has experienced rapid growth partly due to a human resource policy, which handles. Globalization has enabled the organnization to expand the organization from rural small towns to urban areas. Also Wal-Mart enjoys a very loyal consumer base. Globalization has also enabled the leadership of Wal-Mart to expand the organization to so many areas externally, where they attract a lot of customers therefore making lots of profit. This has been achieved by lowering the prices of the goods, as a result of global nature of manufacturing. In terms of sustainability, Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy is market tested and it is very likely that, customers will always go for cheaper quality and therefore the strategy of low-cost will lead the organization from success to success. The fact that, Wal-Mart does not spend on inventories but uses a system where by delivery of goods is done by the suppliers saves the company a lot of money. This affects prices f commodities in that, so many suppliers want to engage the organization in business and therefore are willing to operate under terms that the organization dictates. Wal-Mart although has been favored by globalization needs to be wary of emerging issues such as the ones touching on ethics. Other threats for Wal-Mart include: Ethically, it has been accused of oppressing suppliers to an extent whereby, they are forced to lay-off employees hence causing joblessness as well as leading to closure of manufacturing plants on the US in favor of imports which are cheaper and therefore can be distributed to the retailer at much cheaper rates. Bargaining power is another crucial strength for the company, it virtually controls all the decisions or contracts entered with other companies that is, suppliers. Wal-Mart engages in a continuous improvement campaign in what consumers view as being on the move every time. To consumers and customers, this is viewed as an advantage since they know that every time the retailer makes a move, prices drop and therefore the company is seen as a better option by many. Efficiency is one factor that Wal-Mart has achieved by investing in modern systems. The company has been able to transact business worldwide with ease while at the same time minimizing cost. The fact that Wal-Mart has created a positive image for itself has ensured a constant demand for services and goods something which competitors have not been able to match. Wal-Mart has maintained a public image and therefore this helps.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Children are born as a blank slateÃ¢â¬ Jean-Jacques Rousseau. As our children grow they develop physically and cognitively. While physical development is soled based on genes and eating habits of a child, his or her cognitive development is a mental process which according to Piaget is a result of biological maturation and environmental experience. These experiences include being exposed to a school environment. While teachers are one of the majors state holders in a school because they are in a position to depart their knowledge to students they come in contact with exposing them to the formal and informal curriculum, they are not the only persons to educate a child. Moreover, students learn more from the hidden curriculum which can be defined as a side effect of an education which are learned but not openly intended such of which is the transmission of norms, values, and beliefs conveyed in the classroom and the social environment. Conversely as the saying goes it takes a whole village to raise a child hence, poor and good performers are as a result of how a child is raised. Good performance, a theoretical retelling to a great extent what was taught on paper. Poor performance, failing to recall what was taught within a written examination process or performance that is what is believed to be less than the capabilities of the person. Jamaican school system seeks to segregate students based on achieving a certain level of academic success where failure to meet this standard is a result of being classified as a poor performer. This is an assumption that all individuals think deeply, analytically, flexibly, and imaginatively while reality shows that children develop at different stages and process things differently. Conversely, not all persons does well retelling things on paper but some are kinetically inclined and does physical examinations better that theoretical. A charge cannot be laid until a guilty plea. StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance is not solely based on lessons learnt by teachers hence teachers should not be held responsible for their poor performance. We can spend years pointing our fingers on the factors that contributes to poor performance: the home, inadequate school facilities and the methods of evaluating our students within the educational system. But does this solve the problem? Let us not waste our time pointing fingers on teachers but join in and play our part to elinquish poor performance. We are all responsible for the performance of our future leaders; teachers, parents etc. donÃ¢â¬â¢t just sit and say teachers should be held responsible for the poor performance of students but rather let us diminish poor performance by our students. These include diagnosing the poor performance; create a performance motivation plan and educating parents. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Educating parents leads to better parenting results better children, better children better students, better students better performanceÃ¢â¬ ¦